[1] Israel: jackal, spread
[2] Vietnam: human
[3] Afghanistan (Kabul): human, dog, control
[4] Malaysia: human
[5] India (Kerala): wildlife
[6] Philippines: human

[1] イスラエル:ジャッカル、まん延
[2] ベトナム:ヒト
[3] アフガニスタン(カブール):ヒト、イヌ、制御
[4] マレーシア:ヒト
[5] インド(ケララ)野生動物
[6] フィリピン:ヒト

[1] Israel: jackal, spread
Date: Thu 29 Sep 2022
Source: Circular of Israel's State Field Veterinary Services [inHebrew, transl. Mod.AS, edited]
[1] イスラエル:ジャッカル、まん延


情報源:Circular of Israel's State Field Veterinary Services(ヘブライ語、翻訳、モデレータA Sによる編集済み)


Subject: Rabies case No. 19 - jackal, Ganei Hugga, Near Hamadiya
Re: Laboratory report No. A00464997 dated 21 Sep 2022.
標題:狂犬病第19例 ジャッカル、ハマディア近郊のGanei Hugga地区

返信:研究所報告No. A00464997 2022年9月21日付

Please be informed that a golden jackal which looked unwell was brought on 20 Sep 2022 for testing to the rabies laboratory of the Kimron Veterinary Institute and found positive for rabies.

[(Signed) Dr Avi Vasserman, (acting) Director Field Veterinary Services]
(署名)Avi Vasserman博士、現Field Veterinary Services部長
Communicated by:

[The described case has become Israel's 19th animal confirmed as rabid since the start of 2022, involving 10 jackals, 5 dogs, 3 cattle and a cat. Of the 19 cases, 16 were included in a cluster in north Israel, adjacent to the Lebanese border. The current case seems to belong to a new, separate cluster, adjacent to Israel's border with the Kingdom of Jordan. An interactive rabies map, presenting the 2022 cases as of 29 Sep 2022, is available at
In the legend, dogs are denoted using a pink colored pin, jackals aqua, cat yellow, and cattle red.



Ganey Hugga is a recreation site, 1.5 km distant from Israel's border with the Kingdom of Jordan (map at https://tinyurl.com/4t738efz). In late August 2022, 2 other jackals were rabies-confirmed in the same region. On 23 Aug 2022, a rabid jackal was recorded/confirmed in the very same location. Earlier, on 15 Aug 2022, a rabid jackal cub was detected in Gidona, in the same region. Most likely, the same epidemiological situation prevails currently on eastern side of the Jordan river which separates Israel from the Kingdom of Jordan.
Ganey Huggaはレクリエーション地でヨルダン王国イスラエルの国境から1.5kmのに位置する。(地図はhttps://tinyurl.com/4t738efz)2022年8月、2頭のジャッカルがそれぞれ狂犬病だったということが同じ地域で確認された。2022年8月23日には、1頭の狂犬病のジャッカルが全く同じ地域で確認されて記録されている。それより以前の2022年8月15日には1頭の狂犬病のジャッカルの子供が同じ地域のギドナで見つかっていた。おそらく、ヨルダン王国イスラエルの境界を流れるヨルダン川の東部でも同じ疫学的状況が現在も続いているのだろう。

This new cluster is reminiscent of an earlier, serious rabies event in the same region. Following more than 10 years of effective control of rabies throughout Israel, mainly due to the periodic countrywide application of oral vaccination of foxes and jackals, an explosive outbreak in jackals, starting in August 2017 on the Jordanian border, spread south-westward, peaking in early 2018 (see item 1, commentary,
http://promedmail.org/post/20180611.5850724). It required the State Veterinary Services to declare large parts of northern Israel as "high risk" and to apply severe control measures, including preventive mass vaccination of livestock and intensification of the baited-vaccine application. Hopefully, the 3 jackals do not herald a repeat experience; alertness is warranted on both sides of the Jordan river. - Mod.AS]

[2] Vietnam: human
Date: Wed 28 Sep 2022
Source: Outbreak News Today [edited]
[2] ベトナム:ヒト



In the 1st 8 months of 2022, Vietnam had 40 human rabies deaths.
Although the number of deaths from rabies in some provinces decreased significantly, the number of deaths still increased compared to the previous period. Despite some progress over the past 10 years, Vietnam continues to report between 70 and 100 deaths from rabies each year.


The number of deaths from rabies in some provinces has decreased significantly, but the number of deaths from 2017 to 2021 is still increased in 20 provinces compared with the period 2011-2016.

In order to actively prevent rabies, the Department of Preventive Medicine, the Ministry of Health recommends that people take the following measures:
1. Fully vaccinated dogs and cats and annual booster vaccinations as recommended by the veterinary industry.
2. Do not let dogs and cats loose; dogs on the street must wear a muzzle.
3. Do not play, tease dogs and cats.
4. When bitten, scratched or licked by a dog or cat:
- Wash the wound thoroughly with water and strong soap continuously for 15 minutes, if soap is not available, flush the wound with clean water -- this is an effective 1st aid measure to reduce the risk of rabies when infected.
- Then continue to wash the wound with 70% alcohol, iodine alcohol or Povidone, Iodine.
- Limit bruising and do not cover the wound.
- Go to the nearest medical center for advice and timely rabies vaccination. Only vaccination can prevent rabies.
- Absolutely do not self-treat and do not ask a healer to cure rabies.


  1. 獣医業界から勧奨される完全な犬猫へのワクチン接種及び、毎年の追加接種。
  2. 犬や猫を放さない。犬は路上では口輪をする。
  3. 犬や猫をからかわない。
  4. 犬や猫に咬まれたり引っ掻かれたり舐められた時には
  • 水でよく洗い、石鹸で15分間休まずに洗う。もし石鹸を使えない場合にはきれいな水を傷口に吹きかけて洗い流す。これは感染した場合狂犬病のリスクを下げる有効な初期治療である。
  • 次に70%アルコールか、ヨードチンキ、ポビドンヨードで傷口の消毒を続ける。
  • 傷を叩いたり被覆したりしない。
  • 助言と早期のワクチン接種のため、至近の病院に行く。ワクチン接種のみが狂犬病を防御できる。
  • 狂犬病治療のため、絶対に自分で治療したり祈祷師にお願いしたりしない。

Communicated by:ProMED

[3] Afghanistan (Kabul): human, dog, control
Date: Tue 27 Sep 2022
Source: The Mayhew [abridged, edited]
[3] アフガニスタン(カブール):ヒト、イヌ、制御


情報源:The Mayhew(簡約版、編集済み)

Mayhew Afghanistan, alongside Kabul Municipality, Afghan Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation & Livestock and Kabul University Vet Faculty, are working in a partnership to eradicate rabies in Kabul.

The global profile and awareness of rabies is being raised through public advocacy and awareness efforts and delivery of a city-wide mass vaccination programme.
As a result of this initiative, there have been no recorded canine-mediated rabies deaths in humans for the past 18 months in Kabul. And to date [27 Sep 2022], there have been no confirmed cases of rabies in dogs in the city since April 2021, a landmark achievement being celebrated on World Rabies Day 2022 on 28 Sep 2022 [see commentary below].

Prior to 2017, on average there were 38 recorded human deaths each year from canine-mediated rabies in the city. Mayhew Afghanistan's mass rabies vaccination programme was then launched in August 2017, with support from Dogs Trust Worldwide, and in subsequent years, the Edgard Cooper Foundation as well. The vaccination programme has run over a course of 4 cycles.

Since the programme commenced almost 95 000 dogs have been vaccinated in 16 of the city's districts. Plans are currently underway for the programme to be rolled out to 6 remaining outlying districts of Kabul, which were previously inaccessible.

The vaccination team, comprising Mayhew Afghanistan vets and a team of Kabul Municipality dog-catchers, who are trained in humane catching methods by Mayhew, work systematically across the 16 districts of Kabul catching the dogs, vaccinating them and marking them with a dash of non-toxic paint before releasing them.

In order to break the chain of the rabies virus transmission, the benchmark is that a minimum of 70% of the dog population in any one area is vaccinated before moving on to the next area. Post-vaccination surveys are carried out to count the dogs marked with the paint and cross-checked against the dog population survey carried out earlier to meet this threshold.


In addition, the Mayhew Community Engagement team in Afghanistan, are raising awareness to address the human aspect of rabies, in order to reduce the number of cases through a holistic approach. The team talk to locals of all ages, explaining their work, discussing rabies dog-bite prevention and how to behave around the roaming dogs in their city. Since May 2021, the team have reached 1440 adults and 3120 children through this work [see comment].

As Caroline Yates, Head of International Projects and Relations at Mayhew, explains, "Since it first began 5 years ago, our rabies vaccination programme in Kabul, the 1st of its kind for Afghanistan and devised by Mayhew Afghanistan's Country Director, Dr Abdul-Jalil Mohammadzai DVM, has raised the profile of the country's struggle with rabies, this neglected yet endemic disease, with leading organisations involved in the fight against rabies. 'Dr Mo', as he is affectionately known, convinced the Kabul authorities to stop the culling of dogs and has helped initiate this life-saving programme for dogs and people. As a result, Mayhew is proud to be part of WHO/WOAH's overall strategy to eliminate canine-mediated rabies by 2030, 'Zero by 2030.'"

Caroline continues, "It is vital that people understand the importance of rabies control for the health and safety of humans and animals. This is a disease which is 100% preventable, and mass vaccination of dogs is a proven method of reaching that goal, as well as being the most cost-effective. As in many of the world's poorer countries, where rabies in endemic, Kabul's residents are frequently unable to access rabies vaccinations or post-prophylaxis treatment if bitten by a dog, either because the vaccines are unavailable, or in most cases, unaffordable. Fear of this fatal disease leads governments to introduce culling of dogs which is ineffective and does nothing to prevent the transmission of the disease or control the population."

She adds, "The large number of vaccinated dogs and the fact there have been no canine-mediated rabies deaths in humans for 18 months, proves the campaign is working. As we approach World Rabies Day on 28 Sep 2022, with this year's theme of 'One health, zero deaths' in mind, Mayhew's team in Afghanistan should feel very proud of their achievements."

Communicated by:ProMED

[Mayhew is an animal welfare charity based in London, active locally and internationally. The above information comes from the charity's own website. In view of Kabul's human population statistics – nearly 4.46 million strong (2022 figures), the claimed absence, there, of canine-mediated rabies deaths in humans for the past 18 months and no cases in dogs in the city since April 2021, seem most impressive. The said figures relate to "recorded" human deaths and "confirmed" cases in dogs. It remains to hope that the numbers of undiagnosed human cases and non-tested dogs, are minimal. - Mod.AS]
「メイヒューはロンドンに拠点を置く動物福祉の慈善団体で、国内外で活動している。上記の情報はこの団体のウェブサイトから引用した。カブールの人口がほぼ460万人強(2022年)という観点から、この18ヶ月間犬媒介狂犬病がないことや2021年4月以降には市内で犬の狂犬病事例がないことは非常に感動的だ。この数字は人の死亡が「記録」され、犬の狂犬病が「確認」された数である。診断されていない人事例の数や未検査の犬の数が最小であることを祈っている。モデレータA S」

[4] Malaysia: human
Date: Tue 27 Sep 2022
Source: Sarawak Tok [edited]
[4] マレーシア:ヒト




Rabies has so far killed 7 people in Sarawak this year [2022].

As such, State Food Industry, Commodities and Regional Development Minister Datuk Sri Dr Stephen Rundi Utom advised those bitten by a dog to immediately seek treatment. He said rabies is a disease contracted by humans through the bite and saliva of a dog infected with rabies.

"When bitten by a dog, whether it has rabies or not, you (the public) need to seek treatment. Don't wait until a stage when you need a doctor.

"By the time, you get the symptoms (infected by rabies), it will probably be too late for treatment," he told a press conference after opening the Rabies Conference in Borneo 2022, here, today [27 Sep 2022].

He also advised those having pet dogs to send the animal for anti-rabies vaccination and to register their pets with the authorities.


Meanwhile, the Director of the Sarawak Veterinary Services Department director Dr Adrian Susin Ambud said the department hoped to give anti-rabies injections to up to 70% of the dog population in the state to achieve herd immunity. He said the department had so far given anti-rabies vaccination to about 300 000 dogs in the state.
Communicated by:
ProMED Rapporteur Mahmoud Orabi

[5] India (Kerala): wildlife
Date: Mon 26 Sep 2022
Source: New Indian Express [edited]
[5] インド(ケーララ州):野生動物




The statewide anti-rabies vaccination drive for stray dogs seems to have overlooked the threat posed by the infection in wild animals, especially in the forest fringe areas.

Wild animals are considered reservoirs of viruses including Rabies lyssavirus which causes rabies. Frequent encounters between wild and domestic animals leave a spillover effect that would reduce the impact of vaccination campaigns being conducted in the state, say experts.

Following a rise in incidents of stray dog bites and rabies deaths, the state government launched a massive vaccination campaign on 20 Sep 2022 to inoculate dogs. The health and animal husbandry departments have identified hotspots based on the number of dog bites to provide special attention to vaccination in those areas. However, the importance of the drive in fringe locations near forest areas has not been given the emphasis they require.


"It remains an unaddressed area. The rabies infections in the forest are rarely reported. The frequent straying of wild animals into human habitations near forests opens up the possibility of transmission of the rabies virus," said Dr S Nandakumar, Disease Investigation Officer and pathologist, State Institute for Animal Diseases, Palode.
「そこは未対策地のままです。森林地帯での狂犬病感染はほとんど報告されていません。森林地帯のそばで野生動物が頻繁に人の居住地入り込むと狂犬病ウイルスの人への伝播の可能性が生じるのです。」とパロードにある州立家畜疾病研究所の疾病調査官であり病理学研究者のS ナンダクマール博士は述べた。

"We can try oral vaccination on wild animals straying into human habitats along with regular vaccination of all animals in forest fringe areas. The idea is to create an immune belt to prevent the encroachment of pathogens," he said.

The strategies for effectively preventing the transmission of rabies virus from wild animals are still at a nascent stage. But experts have highlighted the human-animal interface for all emerging diseases in the state, including rabies, Nipah, Kyasanur Forest disease (KFD), Scrub Typhus etc.

"There is a need to strengthen surveillance at fringe locations. The very idea of 'One Health' is that disease prevention and eradication activities can't be limited to humans alone," said Dr Althaf A, an epidemiologist and associate professor at GMCH, Thiruvananthapuram.
[Byline: Unnikrishnan S]

--ティルマンタプラムにあるGMCHの疫学者であり准教授のアルサフ A博士は語った。(ユニクリシュナン S署名)
Communicated by: ProMED

[6] Philippines: human
Date: Thu 22 Sep 2022
Source: Inquirer.net [edited]
[6] フィリピン:ヒト




Six patients had died from rabies, the Department of Health Center for Health Development (DOH-CHD) in Bicol said Thursday [22 Sept 2022].

Two of the fatalities came from Camarines Norte, 2 from Sorsogon, one from Camarines Sur, and one from Masbate, the DOH-CHD said. There was also a spike in the number of animal bite cases, mostly by dogs, totaling around 31,138 recorded from [January to June 2022].

"The number of cases is higher compared to 2021, covering the same period that logged only 25,736," said Ruby Jeremias, rabies coordinator at DOH-CHD Bicol. Health experts appealed to the public to immediately visit the animal bite center and seek consultation to avoid complications that may result in death. They also advised pet owners to have their pets vaccinated for protection against rabies infection.

[Byline: Michael B. Jaucian]
(ミシェル B ジョシュアン)
Communicated by: ProMED

[The Philippines has recently gained the World Organisation for Animal Health (WOAH) endorsement for its official control programme for dog-mediated rabies. See



The One Health Quadripartite collaboration, formed by FAO, UNEP, WHO and WOAH (founded as OIE), is said to launch soon a One Health Joint Plan of Action (OH JPA), 2022 - 2026 (draft at




This framework of actions relies on the One Health approach to strengthen collaboration, communication, capacity building and coordination equally across all sectors responsible for addressing health concerns at the human-animal-environment interface. It notably supports the activities of the United Against Rabies Forum, created in 2020 by the FAO, WHO and WOAH. The Forum brings together governments, vaccine producers, researchers, NGOs and development partners with the aim of accelerating and implementing a One Health approach for rabies control.
この活動の枠組みには「ワンヘルス」のアプローチに基づき、人と動物と環境の接点での健康への懸念に対処するための責任ある部門が全て等しく、協力、伝達、能力開発、調整を強化することが必要としている。そして2020年FAOおよびWHO、WOAHにより創設された「United Against Rabies Forum」の活動を特に支持している。このフォーラムには「ワンヘルス」のアプローチで狂犬病制御のための促進と実行を目的として、政府およびワクチンメーカー、研究者、NGO、開発パートナーが集まっている。

The elimination of human deaths from dog-mediated rabies is one of the priorities identified in the OH JPA. As illustrated in the event addressed in item 1 above, combatting rabies requires international cooperation, in view of the need to address this zoonosis as a regional transboundary disease One Health challenge (see http://promedmail.org/post/20220923.8705750). - Mod.AS
犬媒介の狂犬病による人の死亡の撲滅はOH JPAに認識された優先課題の一つである。上記1に示されるように、狂犬病への対策はワンヘルスの課題である地域の境界を超えたこの人獣共通感染症に対処する必要性の観点から、国際協力が求められる。(以下を参照: http://promedmail.org/post/20220923.8705750



ProMED maps:
Afghanistan: https://promedmail.org/promed-post?place=8705891,137
India: https://promedmail.org/promed-post?place=8705891,142
Israel: https://promedmail.org/promed-post?place=8705891,90
Malaysia: https://promedmail.org/promed-post?place=8705891,147
Philippines: https://promedmail.org/promed-post?place=8705891,158
Vietnam: https://promedmail.org/promed-post?place=8705891,152]

[See Also:
Rabies (39): Asia (Lebanon) Middle East, animals, spread, control,
comment http://promedmail.org/post/20220923.8705750
Rabies (38): Asia (Lebanon) human, spread (Israel) dog, human exposure
Rabies (09): Eurasia (Ukraine, India, Israel) cat, human, cow, control
Rabies (06): Eurasia (Israel, Malaysia, Turkey) dog, owned, stray,
human exp http://promedmail.org/post/20220222.8701585
Rabies (31): Eurasia (India, Israel, Ukraine), Africa (S Africa)
human, animal http://promedmail.org/post/20210827.8626789
Rabies (25): Asia (India, Nepal) human, dog; (Israel) jackal, human
exp http://promedmail.org/post/20210711.8511091
Rabies (07): Asia, Pakistan (SD) human, Israel (HZ, HD) dog, spread
Rabies (05): Asia (Israel, Bangladesh) animal, human
Rabies (07): Asia (Cambodia, Indonesia, Israel) human, animal, control
Rabies (57): Asia (Lebanon) human, animal
Rabies (31): Africa (Kenya), Asia (Israel, Malaysia, Viet Nam) human,
animal http://promedmail.org/post/20180611.5850724
Rabies (15): Asia (Lebanon) canine, OIE
Rabies (09): Asia (Israel) wildlife, spread (India) human, treatment
modified http://promedmail.org/post/20180203.5604913
Rabies (03): Asia (Israel) wild, domestic, OIE
Rabies (02): Asia (Israel) wild, domestic, spread, control measures
Rabies (26): Asia (India, Nepal, Pakistan) Africa (Algeria) animal,
human http://promedmail.org/post/20170616.5109529
Rabies, human - Afghanistan: (NR)