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A ProMED-mail post <http://www.promedmail.org>
ProMED-mail is a program of the International Society for Infectious Diseases

In this update:本更新では
[1] Connecticut: coyote, human exposure【1】コネチカット州:コヨーテ、人曝露
[2] Texas: bat, human exposure【2】テキサス州:コウモリ、人曝露
[3] Kansas: dog imported from Egypt, human exposure【3】カンサス州:エジプトからの輸入犬、人曝露

[1] Connecticut: coyote, human exposure コネチカット州:コヨーテ、人曝露
Date: Tue 3 Nov 2020 7:10 p.m. EST 日時:2020年11月3日(火)7:10東部標準時
Source: The Middletown Press [edited] 出典:The Middletown Press [編集]

A local woman is being treated preemptively for possible exposure to rabies after she fended off a coyote -- with the help of her donkey -- and possibly came in contact with its saliva during 2 incidents on the same day last week, state officials said.

State Department of Energy and Environmental Protection (DEEP or DEEP-WD) Wildlife Division staff were recently contacted by an East Haddam resident who described being attacked by the wild animal 22 Oct [2020], according to Media Relations Manager Will Healy.


The woman told DEEP officials she "fought the animal off with a pitchfork, and it bit her boot before it was kicked by her donkey," Healy said.

She notified East Haddam Animal Control Officer Michael P. Olzacki for assistance. The victim said that "the coyote attacked her later the same day while she was driving in her car near her home, and she attempted to hit the animal, but it ran off," Healy said.
彼女はイーストハダム動物管理官マイケルP.オルザッキに援助を求めた。 その被害者は、「同じ日に自宅近くで車を運転している彼女をそのコヨーテがまた攻撃してきたので、殴ろうとしたが、逃げてしまった。」と述べた。

The victim notified neighbors, who allegedly also encountered a coyote exhibiting similarly aggressive behavior, Healy said. The woman said they came over to her property, eventually located the coyote, and shot and killed it.

The animal control officer disposed of the carcass, with no rabies testing recommended, Healy said. The victim said that "although she was not bitten or scratched, she had possible exposure to the coyote's saliva while fighting it off." She is undergoing post-exposure rabies treatments as a precaution.
ヒーリー氏によると、動物管理官は死骸を処分したが、狂犬病の検査は推奨されていなかった。 被害者は、「噛まれたり引っかかれたりはしなかったが、コヨーテと戦っている間にコヨーテの唾液にさらされる可能性があった」と述べた。彼女は予防的に狂犬病曝露後処置を受けている。

Olzacki said it is not at all uncommon for donkeys to defend themselves in that way. In fact, he said, llamas behave in the sameway, which is why people keep them penned with their livestock. [I hope she had her donkey vaccinated. While it is unlikely the coyote bit/nipped the donkey, it is a very close encounter, serving as a warning to vaccinate your livestock. - Mod.TG]
[Byline: Cassandra Day]
オルザッキ氏は、ロバがそのように身を守ることは決して珍しいことではないと述べた。 実際、ラマも同じように行動するため、人々はラマやロバを家畜と一緒に檻に入れて飼っているのである。 [私は彼女がロバに予防接種を受けさせて欲しいと思う。コヨーテがロバを噛んだり掴んだりする可能性は低いが、それは非常に濃密な接触であり、家畜に予防接種をするための警告としてよいきっかけである。


Communicated by: ProMED-mail <promed@promedmail.org>

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map: East Haddam, Connecticut, United States:

[2] Texas: bat, human exposureテキサス州:コウモリ、人曝露
Date: Thu 5 Nov 2020 4:18 p.m. ET 2020年11月5日(火)4:18p.m.東部標準時
Source: The Daily Beast [edited] 出典: The Daily Beast [編集]

Fifteen kindergarteners at a Texas school were potentially exposed to rabies after playing near or with an infected bat outside theirelementary school. Manor, Texas, police said the families of students who were seen in a video interacting with the animal have been notified, and they were referred to a physician. Lagos Elementary School has reportedly been inspected for more bats or pests and will notify families should more be found. This same school was shut down earlier in the week due to a campus employee testing positive for COVID-19.
[Byline: Tori B. Powell]

Communicated by: ProMED-mail from HealthMap Alerts <promed@promedmail.org>

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map: Manor, Texas, United States: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/51626>]

[3] Kansas: dog imported from Egypt, human exposureカンサス州:エジプトからの輸入犬、人曝露
Date: Fri 6 Nov 2020 2020年11月6日(金)
Source: Infectious Disease Special Edition [edited] 出典: Infectious Disease Special Edition [編集]

A dog imported from Egypt later tested positive for canine rabies virus variant (CRVV), resulting in post-exposure prophylaxis for 44 people.

The case, which was the 3rd of canine rabies in a dog imported from Egypt in 4 years, prompted the CDC to suspend dog importations from the country (MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020; 69:1374-1377).
この事例は、ここ4年間のエジプトからの輸入犬では3番目の狂犬病事例であり、CDCは、エジプトからの犬の輸入を停止するように促した、(MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020; 69:1374-1377).

While canine rabies has been eliminated from the United States, an estimated 107 100 of the 1.06 million dogs imported into the country each year come from countries considered to be high risk for endemic canine rabies, highlighting the risk of potential rabies transmission from countries where the virus remains a risk. [This should not be misconstrued to say rabies has been eliminated.


>From the OIE: "There are many strains of the rabies virus; each strain is maintained in particular reservoir host(s). Although these viruses can readily cause rabies in other species, they usually die out during serial passage in species to which they are not adapted. The reservoir host is sometimes used as an adjective to describe a strain's origin. For example, if a virus from a skunk caused rabies in a dog, it would be described as skunk rabies in a dog, whereas a virus that is maintained in dog populations would be called canine rabies. Occasionally, a virus adapted to one species becomes established in another species. In the United States, skunk populations have been infected with raccoon and bat rabies variants, and canine rabies has become established in some populations of wild animals, such as gray foxes in Texas and Arizona." Extracted from <https://www.oie.int/fileadmin/Home/eng/Publications_&_Documentation/docs/pdf/rabies.pdf>
- Mod.TG]

- Mod.TG]

In early 2019, 25 dogs from Egypt arrived in Kansas, following transport from an airport in Toronto. All of the dogs had certificates of veterinary inspection, rabies vaccination certificates, and documentation of serologic conversion from a government-affiliated rabies laboratory in Egypt, which were reviewed by Canadian authorities, the U.S. Border Patrol, and the Kansas Department of Agriculture.


Shortly after arrival in Kansas, one of the dogs began displaying signs associated with rabies infection and following observation was humanely euthanized. Rabies infection was confirmed via a direct fluorescent antibody test.



While serologic testing performed in Egypt, and included in the dogs' documentation, suggested all dogs had mounted sufficient immune responses to a previous vaccination [serological or PCR], testing in the United States indicated only 7 of 25 dogs had evidence they had responded to a prior rabies vaccination. Attempts to verify the Egyptian vaccinations failed due to invalid contact information for the laboratory.

エジプトで実施され、その犬の記録書類に記載されていた書類では、全ての犬が以前のワクチン接種に対して(血清学的またはPCR 訳者注:PCRでは狂犬病ワクチンに対する反応は測定できないので間違いだと考えられる)十分な免疫反応を示したことが示唆されていたが、米国での検査においては、以前のワクチン接種に対する反応は25頭中7頭のみで確認された。エジプトのワクチン接種が適正であったかを確認しようとしたが、研究所の連絡情報が無効であったためにできなかった。

"It is unknown if the inadequacy of the rabid dog's vaccination was due to a potency issue with the vaccine they received, vaccination failure, or fraudulent documentation," explained Chelsea Raybern, MPH, Senior Epidemiologist with the Kansas Department of Health and Environment.

狂犬病犬のワクチン接種の不能が、受けたワクチンの効力の問題なのか、接種の失敗なのか、また不正な文書によるものなのかは、わからない。」とMPH、カンザス州保険健康局の上級疫学者、チェルシー レイバンは解説した。

While the infection did not spread beyond the one dog, the CDC noted the high cost of dealing with such cases showcases the importance of thorough review of vaccination and serology documents for dogs imported from countries lacking robust veterinary safeguards. Many animals had to be quarantined until public health officials could be sure they were not infected, up to 45 days.


Overall, 44 people elected to receive PEP; most were veterinary staff who initiated PEP before the public health risk assessment. After the assessments were conducted, however, only 19 would have required PEP, including 13 veterinary staff, 5 pet rescue workers, and one household contact. Only one of those was bitten by the dog. [Recall that rabies can be transmitted through saliva in a scratch on the skin or a drop in the eye. - Mod.TG]

全体では、44名がPEPを受けることになった。ほとんどが公衆衛生リスク評価の前にPEPを開始した獣医スタッフであった。しかし、評価の後、13名の獣医スタッフ、5名のペットレスキュー従事者、1名の世帯連絡者の19名のみがPEP を必要とした。それらの内1名のみが犬に咬まれた。(狂犬病は、ひっかき傷や皮膚又は目に落ちた唾液との接触によって感染することを思い起こしてください。)Mod.TG]

"Veterinary health documentation of dogs imported from high-risk countries should be critically evaluated before entry into the U.S. is permitted," Raybern added.
[Byline: Ethan Covey]


Communicated by: ProMED-mail from HealthMap Alerts <promed@promedmail.org>

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map: Kansas, United States: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/219>]

[We have some high number of human exposures as well as an unusual
defender in this group of rabies reports. I do hope the woman who fended off the coyote got her donkey vaccinated against rabies. Certainly, rabies is in the wildlife in her area. Sadly, the donkey may not be so lucky to avoid the rabies virus if he curiously investigates a skunk.


It is easy to see how a bat could fascinate children, and how groupthink can affect children. Educating children about the deadlydisease rabies is critically important. Education on this disease can and should start early.


While rabies cannot be confirmed on blood test from an animal, it can give an indication of response to vaccination. This highlights another example of mass exposure requiring a lot of money to prophylactically treat those exposed or potentially exposed to the dog from Egypt.


Recall rabies is spread in the saliva. A drop of tiny saliva in the eye, or scratch on the skin, or even a sneeze spray into the oralcavity may be all that's required to transmit the disease. If this animal was a puppy (irresistible to most of us), then it may also help account for the large numbers. Of course, large numbers of humans are involved with checking the animals on each end of the long journey from Egypt. Perhaps the best message is extreme caution, and if there is a doubt, get the post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). - Mod.TG]



 [See Also:
Rabies (29): Americas (USA) animal, human exposure
Rabies (28): Americas (USA) animal, human exp
Rabies (27): Americas (USA) animal, human exp
Rabies (26): Americas (USA) bat, human exp
Rabies (25): Americas (USA) animal, human exp
Rabies (23): Americas (USA) bat
Rabies (22): Americas (USA) cat, raccoon, fox, human exp
Rabies (21): Asia (Kazakhstan) cattle, OIE
Rabies (20): Americas (USA, Canada) animal, human exposure
Rabies (19): Asia (Malaysia, Indonesia, Japan ex Philippines) animal,
human http://promedmail.org/post/20200628.7517416
Rabies (18): Americas (USA) animal, human exp
Rabies (17): Americas (USA) fox, goat, bat, human exposure
Rabies (15): Americas (USA) fox, raccoon, dog, human exp
Rabies (13): Americas (USA) cat, fox, human exp
Rabies (12): Americas (USA) fox, dog, cat, human exp
Rabies (11): Americas (USA) cat, skunk, bat, human exp
Rabies (10): Americas (USA) raccoon, dog, bull, human exp
Rabies (08): Americas (USA, Canada) cat, dog, fox, skunk, human exp
Rabies (06): Americas (USA) cat, fox, cow, human exp
Rabies (03): Americas (USA) cat, fox, otter, coyote, human exposure
Rabies (02): Americas (USA) raccoon, cat, human, dog exp
Rabies (57): Americas (USA) raccoon, cat, human exp
Rabies (53): Americas (USA) fox, human exp
Rabies (50): Americas (USA) cat, dog, human exposure
Rabies (49): Americas (USA) fox, human exp
Rabies (48): Americas (USA) cat, dog, raccoon, human exp
Rabies (47): Americas (USA) skunk, alert
Rabies (45): Americas (USA) dog, skunk, raccoon, fox, human exp
Rabies (44): Americas (USA) bat, human exp
Rabies (43): Americas (USA) fox, bat, human exp
Rabies (42): Americas (USA) dog, cat, fox, raccoon, human exp
Rabies (40): Americas (USA) bat, human exp
and other items in the archives]