In this update:
[1] West Virginia - raccoon, dog, human exposure
[2] Florida - cat, human exposure
[3] New Hampshire - bat, human exposure

[1] West Virginia - raccoon, dog, human exposure

Date: 26 May 2019
Source: WSAZ [edited]

Another raccoon tested positive for rabies in Monongalia County after getting into a fight with a family's dog, according to a press release from the Health Department. It's the 4th reported encounter with dogs and rabid raccoons in the county this year [2019], health officials said.



The dog involved in the most recent incident was up to date on its rabies shots and has been revaccinated, according to Jon W Welch, program manager of the Monongalia County Health Department Environmental Health. Health officials said the dog injured the raccoon during the fight. An animal removal service collected the raccoon. It later died and was tested for rabies. Those results came back positive on Thursday [23 May 2019]. The people the dog came in contact with after the incident have begun rabies prophylaxis treatment, according to a press release.

モノンガリア郡保健局環境保健部のプログラムマネージャーであるJon W Welchによると、この最新の事例に登場した犬は狂犬病ワクチンを追加接種したばかりであったが、暴露後治療のための狂犬病予防接種を受けたという。保健当局によると、その犬はけんかの最中にアライグマを傷つけたということである。動物の駆除業者はこのアライグマを捕獲した。後にアライグマは死に、狂犬病陽性と判明した。陽性という結果は木曜日(2019年5月23日)に報告された。プレスリリースによると、この犬に接触した人々はこの事件の後、狂犬病の予防的治療を受け始めたという。

Dr Lee B Smith, the health department's executive director, said residents need to make sure their pets are up to date on rabies vaccines. "Rabies is present in wildlife throughout West Virginia," Smith said. "Skunks, foxes, raccoons and bats are known to carry the virus. People are encouraged to keep their pets vaccinated and on leashes."


保健局の局長であるLee B Smith博士は、住民たちは自分が飼っているペットが常に狂犬病ワクチンを更新しているか(つまり定期的に追加接種をうけているか)確認することが必要だという。「狂犬病は、ウェストバージニアじゅうの野生動物が持っています。」とSmithはいう。「スカンク、キツネ、アライグマ、それにコウモリは、ウイルスを伝播しうるが知られています。ペットにはワクチンを接種し、つないでおくようにさせなければなりません。」
communicated by:ProMED-mail<promed@promedmail.org>

[2] Florida - cat, human exposure

Date: 28 May 2019
Source: Pensacola News Journal [edited]<https://eu.pnj.com/story/news/2019/05/28/rabies-alert-issued-bayou-chico-area-escambia-county-stray-cat-raccoon/1258438001/>

Although wild animals might appear to need help, it is always best to leave them alone, a Florida health department expert said on Tuesday [28 May 2019], hours after a rabies alert was issued for the Bayou Chico area of Escambia County. The alert followed an attack by a rabid stray cat on 2 people over the weekend.


Tissue samples from the cat tested at the state laboratory confirmed the presence of the rabies virus. A raccoon found in the same area in January 2019 also tested positive for rabies, according to the Florida Department of Health in Escambia County.



Lovi Donado, environmental supervisor for the Florida Department of Health in Escambia County, said it is best to avoid all contact with wild animals, as well as stray cats and dogs. "The best things you can do are to vaccinate your own pets and to cover your trash cans so as not to attract other animals," she said.

エスカンビア郡フロリダ州保健局の環境スーパーバイザーであるLovi Donadoは、野良犬、野良猫と同様に、野生動物との接触はすべて避けた方がよいと言う。「あなたのできる最善のことは、飼っているペットにワクチンを接種し、ほかの動物たちを惹きつけないようごみの缶に覆いをすることです。」と彼女は言った。

In a 21 May 2019 post on Pensacola's East Hill Neighborhood Association's Facebook page, a resident wrote about a family of foxes living under her home. The post, which included photos of the parents and pups, generated dozens of comments. Donado said foxes are considered a high-risk animal for rabies, and a private trapping company should be contacted to remove them. There is always a risk of a rabid fox transmitting the virus to a domestic pet or to a human, she said. And, Donado said, wild animals such as foxes can appear docile or in need when they are ill because of rabies. "The best advice is to stay away from all wild animals. Rabies can be fatal," she said.


Rabies is a disease of the nervous system and is usually fatal to warm-blooded animals and to humans. The only treatment for human exposure is rabies-specific immune globulin and rabies immunization. Appropriate treatment started soon after the exposure will protect an exposed person from the disease.


The rabies alert that was issued on Tuesday [28 May 2019] morning will last for 60 days. It covers the area in southern Escambia County surrounding Bayou Chico that lies south of West Jackson Street between New Warrington Road and Pace Boulevard. The public is asked to maintain a heightened awareness that rabies is active in the county.



All residents and visitors should be aware that rabies is present in the wild animal population, and domestic animals are at risk if they are not vaccinated, according to the state health department. Health department officials also warned that alerts are designed to increase awareness and should not give a false sense of security to areas not having been named as under an alert.



State health department officials urge residents and visitors to take the following precautions to keep themselves, their families, and their pets safe from rabies:


- vaccinate pets against rabies, and keep vaccinations up to date;
- keep pets under direct supervision so they do not come in contact with wild animals. If a pet is bitten by a wild animal, seek veterinary assistance for the animal immediately, and contact Escambia County Animal Services;
- call animal control services to remove any stray animals from your neighborhood;
- bring in pet food at night, and secure trash cans with fasteners, or place trash containers in the garage, so they do not attract wild or stray animals;
- never adopt wild animals or bring them into your home;
- teach children never to handle unfamiliar animals, wild or domestic, even if they appear friendly;
- prevent bats from entering living quarters or occupied spaces in homes, churches, schools and other similar areas where they might come in contact with people and pets;
- persons who have been bitten or scratched by wild or domestic animals should seek medical attention and report the injury to the Florida Department of Health in Escambia County.
[byline: Melissa Nelson Gabriel]








communicated by:ProMED-mail<promed@promedmail.org>

[3] New Hampshire - bat, human exposure

Date: 29 May 2019
Source: Fox News [edited]

A New Hampshire man required treatment for rabies after a bat reportedly hiding in his iPad case snuck out and bit him last week; and now he hopes his ordeal will help educate others about the dangerous disease. The 86 year old man said he had been using his tablet for about an hour before the critter popped its head out and nipped him.


"It felt like a little bee sting," he told WMUR.com. "And I looked, and the bat was coming out of here, between the cover and the back of the pad. And then I got up, still squeezing it, which I'm sure he wasn't happy about, and I took him outside."
[byline: Alexandria Hein]

 「小さなハチに刺されたようでした」と、彼はWMUR(Manchester, New Hampshire News and Weather)に語った。「私が見ると、そのコウモリが端末とカバーの隙間から出てくるところでした。それで私は起き上がりました。まだコウモリは挟まれたままだったので、苦しがっているとわかり、彼を外に出しました。」

communicated by:ProMED-mail<promed@promedmail.org>

[These articles should prove rabies virus can be harbored in many animals, both domestic and wild. The 2nd article gives some excellent advice: Vaccinate your pets against rabies. Keep the vaccine up to date.


All domestic animals, including dogs, cats, horses, cattle, and other livestock such as sheep and goats need a vaccination against rabies. If humans have any contact, however limited, with animals, then the animal needs a rabies vaccine to protect the animal and the person.



While there are procedures for human beings having been bitten by a rabid animal, or a suspected rabid animal who cannot be tested, these same protocols are slightly different for exposed animals.


Human beings need to have the wound cleaned and dressed. An individual will likely need to receive post exposure prophylaxis. For people who have never been vaccinated against rabies previously, post-exposure anti-rabies vaccination should always include administration of both passive antibody and vaccine. The combination of human rabies immuneglobulin (HRIG) and vaccine is recommended for both bite and non-bite exposures, regardless of the interval between exposure and initiation of treatment. People who have been previously vaccinated or are
receiving pre-exposure vaccination for rabies should receive only vaccine.


Adverse reactions to rabies vaccine and immune globulin are not common. Newer vaccines in use today cause fewer adverse reactions than previously available vaccines. Mild, local reactions to the rabies vaccine, such as pain, redness, swelling, or itching at the injection site, have been reported. Rarely, symptoms such as headache, nausea, abdominal pain, muscle aches, and dizziness have been reported. Local pain and low-grade fever may follow injection of rabies immuneglobulin.


The vaccine should be given at recommended intervals for best results. Talk with your doctor or state or local public health officials if you will not be able to have the shot at the recommended interval. Rabies prevention is a serious matter, and changes should not be made in the schedule of doses.


People cannot transmit rabies to other people unless they themselves are sick with rabies. The prophylaxis you are receiving will protect you from developing rabies, and, therefore, you cannot expose other people to rabies. You should continue to participate in your normal activities.


Rabies post-exposure prophylaxis consists of a dose of human rabies immune globulin and rabies vaccine given on the day of the exposure, and then a dose of vaccine given again on days 3, 7, and 14.


If a person has previously received post-exposure vaccinations or received pre-exposure vaccinations, only 2 doses of vaccine (on the day of exposure and then 3 days later) are needed. Human rabies immuneglobulin is not required. Your doctor and local health department will be able to guide you through the process;<https://www.cdc.gov/rabies/medical_care/index.html>.


However, animals who have been vaccinated will need their wounds cleaned and cared for. They will be re-vaccinated and, depending upon the specific state, are likely to be quarantined for a period of time. If the bitten animal has not been vaccinated, the animal is likely to be euthanized, as it presents a risk of rabies to its owners.


The lesson is to keep your animals vaccinated. Check with your veterinarian regarding your state and county law on frequency of vaccination for your pets. Pets include dogs, cats, horses, cattle, and other animals you have contact with. - Mod.TG


HealthMap/ProMED maps available at: West Virginia, United States: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/249>Florida, United States: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/212>New Hampshire, United States: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/231>]

[See Also:
Rabies (30): Americas, USA (FL, NC) cat, fox, dog, human exposure
Rabies (28): Americas, USA, cattle, imported dogs, corr.
Rabies (28): Americas (USA) cattle, imported dogs
Rabies (26): Americas (USA) fox, raccoon, dog, human exposure
Rabies (15): Americas, Brazil (RS) bat, cattle
Rabies (13): Americas, USA (CO, PA) dog, cow, human exposure
Rabies (12): Americas, USA (SC, CT) raccoon, dog, human exp.
Rabies (11): Americas, USA (FL) raccoon, alert
Rabies (10): Americas, USA (SC) goat, human exposure
Rabies (09): Americas, USA (NY) raccoon, alert
Rabies (48): Americas (USA) raccoon, human exp., susp.
Rabies (37): Americas (USA) raccoon, feline, human exposure
Rabies (36): Americas (USA) bat, alert
Rabies (35): Americas (USA)
Rabies (33): Americas (USA) bat, comment
Rabies (30): Americas (USA) bat, comment
Rabies (29): Americas (USA) bat, human exposure
Rabies (17): Americas (USA) bat, human exp.
Rabies (10): Americas (USA) fox, susp., human exposure
Rabies (06): Americas (USA) human, bat, canine exposure
Rabies (05): Americas (USA) fox, susp., human exposure
Rabies (04): Americas (USA, Brazil) bat, human, Milwaukee protocol
Rabies (42): Americas (USA) bat, human exp.
Rabies (38): Americas (USA)
Rabies (36): Americas (USA) wildlife, multiple human exposures
Rabies (34): Americas (USA) bat, human exp.
Rabies (33): Americas (USA) bobcat, canine & human exposures
Rabies (28): Americas (USA) bat, human exp.
Rabies (27): Americas (USA) feline
Rabies (23): Americas (USA)
Rabies, raccoon - USA (04): (NYC) vaccination
Rabies, raccoon - USA (NY) http://promedmail.org/post/20100122.0246
Rabies, raccoon - USA: New York City alert
and other items in the archives]