In this update:
[1] South Africa (KwaZulu-Natal, Eastern Cape): human, dog-transmitted
[2] Malaysia (Sarawak): human, dog-transmitted
[3] Cambodia: mass vaccination project
[4] Israel: jackal, spread
[5] Jordan (Greater Amman): prevention, owned dogs
[6] Lebanon (south): control and prevention, UNIFIL involvement



[1] 南アフリカ(クワズールー-ナタール州):ヒト、イヌによる伝播


[2] マレーシア(サラワク)・ヒト、イヌによる伝播

[3] カンボジア:大規模ワクチン接種プロジェクト

[4] イスラエル:ジャッカル、感染の拡大

[5] ヨルダン(大アンマン地方):予防、飼い犬

[6] レバノン(南部):制御と予防、国際連合レバノン暫定駐留軍の関与

[1] South Africa (KwaZulu-Natal, Eastern Cape): human, dog-transmitted
Date: Thu 4 May 2023
Source: Outbreak News Today [edited]
[1] 南アフリカ(クワズールー-ナタール州、東ケープ州):ヒト、イヌによる伝播

日付:2023年5月4日 木曜日

情報源:Outbreak News Today(編集済)(URLは省略)

In a follow-up on the human rabies situation in South Africa in 2023, the National Institute for Communicable Diseases (NICD) reports 3 cases of human rabies were confirmed from KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) and Eastern Cape (EC) provinces collectively from 25 Mar to 24 Apr 2023.

2023年の南アフリカにおけるヒトの狂犬病状況の追跡調査において、国立感染症研究所(NICD)は、クワズール・ナタール州(KZN)及び東ケープ州(EC)において、2023 年3月25日から4月24日までの期間に、合わせて3例の狂犬病患者が確認されたと報告した。


This brings the total cases in 2023 to date to 5 confirmed. These cases were reported from EC (n=2), KZN (n=2), and Limpopo (LPP) (n=1). This compares with the 7 human rabies cases (EC=5, KZN=1, LPP=1) that were reported for the same period last year [2022] from the same provinces.
これにより、2023年に確認された感染者数は合計5人となった。 これらの症例は、EC (n=2)、KZN (n=2)、およびリンポポ州(LPP) (n=1) から報告された。昨年(2022年)の同時期に同じ州から報告された狂犬病症例は7人(EC=5、KZN=1、LPP=1)であった。


The case reports on the most recent cases are as follows:
In the 1st case, a family-owned dog bit the wrist of a 28 year old man from Malinda, East London (Buffalo City district, EC) in December 2022. The dog's owner had tied it up for the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals to take it away because it had been behaving strangely when the bite event happened. The dog tested positive for rabies.

1例目では、2022年12月に、家庭で飼われていた犬が東ロンドン(EC州バッファローシティ地区)のマリンダ在住の28歳男性の手首を咬んだ。イヌは、咬傷事故を起こしたときに奇妙な行動をしていたため、動物虐待防止協会に連れて行くために手首を縛られていた。 そのイヌは狂犬病の検査で陽性と判定された。

Reportedly the bite victim only received a single dose of rabies vaccine. The diagnosis of rabies was confirmed through RT PCR testing of 2 antemortem collected saliva samples.


The 2nd case involved a 46 year old man from Cliffdale (eThekwini district, KZN) who suffered a dog bite to his leg in February 2023. The dog was put down and no laboratory testing was conducted. The rabies vaccination status of the animal could not be confirmed. Reportedly the bite victim did receive rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) but this could not be confirmed. The clinical diagnosis of rabies was confirmed through RT-PCR testing of an antemortem collected saliva sample.

2例目の症例は、2023年2月にクリフデール(KZNのeThekwini地区)在住の46歳の男性で、2023年2月に犬に足を咬まれた。犬は安楽死させられ、確定検査は行われなかった。この動物の狂犬病ワクチン接種状況は確認できなかった。伝えられるところによれば、咬まれた被害者は狂犬病暴露後予防処置(PEP)を受けていたようだが、確認できなかった。 狂犬病の臨床診断は、生前に採取された唾液サンプルのRT-PCR検査によって確認された。

The 3rd case was a 14 year old girl, who was bitten and suffered many injuries to her neck and face on 17 Feb 2023. The same dog attacked several children and an adult in the same week at Mjobeni, Libode (OR Tambo district EC), but because it was a stray, veterinary officials who were later called to the scene were unable to locate it for collection and testing. Following the biting events, all of the children received medical attention, and reportedly rabies PEP was initiated although rabies immunoglobulin was not provided/not available at the time. A post-mortem brain sample tested positive for rabies following a direct rabies antigen test.

3例目は14歳の少女で、2023年2月17日に咬まれ首と顔に重傷を負った。同じ週にLibodeのMjobeni(EC州のOR Tambo地区)で同じイヌが数人の子供と大人1人を襲った。 しかし、放浪犬だったために、後に現場に呼ばれた獣医師の職員も回収と検査のためにそれを見つけることができなかった。咬傷事故の後、子供たちは全員医師の診察を受け、当時狂犬病免疫グロブリンは提供されなかった/入手できなかったものの、狂犬病PEPが開始されたと伝えられている。死後の脳サンプルは、直接狂犬病抗原検査を行った結果、狂犬病陽性反応を示した。
communicated by:
ProMED from HealthMap Alerts

[ProMED map of South Africa(南アフリカのProMED地図):


[2] Malaysia (Sarawak): human, dog-transmitted
Date: Thu 11 May 2023
Source: Outbreak News Today [edited]

[2] マレーシア(サラワク)・ヒト、イヌによる伝播

日付:2023年5月11日 木曜日

情報源:Outbreak News Today[編集済](URLは省略)


According to a Borneo Post report, officials in Sarawak state in Malaysia have reported the 8th human rabies death of 2023. The [victim] was a 50 year old man from Kampung Bumbok, Jalan Batu Kitang, [who] died after being bitten by a rabid dog. The man was bitten on the left arm by a stray dog at his home on 3 Apr 2023 and died earlier this week at Sarawak General Hospital.



Rabies is an acute viral infection that is transmitted to humans or other mammals usually through the saliva from a bite of an infected animal. It is also rarely contracted through breaks in the skin or contact with mucous membranes.


communicated by:

[Though not stated, it may be assumed that the victim did not receive post-exposure treatment, possibly because of failing to report his exposure. It is most unfortunate to still see such cases 8 years after the start of the rabies event in Borneo's East Malaysia (2015). Everyone in the affected territory should have become aware of the disease and the availability of the life-saving vaccine. - Mod.AS


(本記事に)明記されていないが、被害者はおそらく狂犬病に暴露されたことの報告を怠ったため、暴露後治療を受けていないと考えられる。ボルネオ島の東マレーシアで狂犬病が発生(2015年)してから8年経った今でもこのような症例が見られるのは最も残念なことである。(狂犬病の)影響を受けた地域の誰もが、その病気と命を救うことの出来るワクチンが利用できることについて認識しているはずである。- Mod.AS

ProMED map of Malaysia(マレーシアのProMED地図):


[3] Cambodia: mass vaccination project
Date: Mon 22 May 2023
Source: Dogs Today Magazine [edited]

[3] カンボジア:大規模ワクチン接種プロジェクト

日付:2023年5月22日 月曜日

情報源:Dogs Today Magazine(編集済)(URLは省略)

Today (22 May 2023) Mission Rabies, a project of the international charity Worldwide Veterinary Service (WVS) which has recently merged with Dogs Trust, will commence a mass vaccination drive in Cambodia's capital Phnom Penh. Working closely with the local government and charity partners, along with over 100 international volunteers, Mission Rabies aims to vaccinate 100 000 dogs against rabies in just 10 days in what's be Cambodia's largest canine rabies vaccination project to date.
本日(2023年5月22日)、「Mission Rabies」は、カンボジアの首都プノンペンで集団予防接種活動を開始する。このミッションは、最近ドッグス・トラストと合併した国際慈善団体であるワールドワイド獣医サービス(WVS)のプロジェクトである。「Mission Rabies」は、100名を超える国際ボランティアとともに、地方自治体や慈善団体と緊密に連携し、カンボジア最大の犬の狂犬病ワクチン接種プロジェクトとして、わずか10 日間で10万頭の犬に狂犬病ワクチンを接種することを目指している。

With rabies killing approximately 59 000 [see comment] people globally every year, Cambodia is in a particularly dire situation, as it has one of the highest death rates per capita of any country in the world due to the disease.


Founder and chief executive officer of Mission Rabies and WVS, Dr Luke Gamble, explains, "In Cambodia, the reality of rabies is a tragic one. Statistically, children die of canine transmitted rabies every week in Phnom Penh, and annually, approximately 600 000 people in the country are bitten by dogs.
「Mission Rabies」とWVSの設立者であり、最高経営責任者でもあるルーク・ギャンブル博士は、「カンボジアにおける狂犬病の現実は悲劇的なものである。統計的には、プノンペンでは、犬から伝染する狂犬病で毎週子供たちが死亡し、年間約60 万人がイヌに咬まれている。」と説明した。

"The lack of awareness about this deadly disease means that many bitten individuals do not receive the post-exposure treatment they need, leaving them with no chance for survival once symptoms appear. This has to stop. We know that vaccinating dogs is the key to eliminating rabies and that's why we're undertaking our largest and most ambitious vaccination drive yet -- to vaccinate 100 000 dogs in 10 working days.


"We're grateful to have the support of MSD Animal Health, and all those who are backing this project. Together, we're working towards our shared goal of eliminating human rabies deaths by 2030. Let's make a difference and protect the lives of both people and dogs in Cambodia."

At its global projects, Mission Rabies aims to vaccinate 70% of the canine population, the coverage needed to eliminate the disease in dogs, and prevent human deaths. The vaccination drive in Cambodia will be delivered in partnership with the General Directorate of Animal Health and Production, Institut Pasteur du Cambodge, and 2 Cambodian animal welfare organisations: Animal Rescue Cambodia, and Phnom Penh Animal Welfare Society. Updates throughout the vaccination drive will be available at http://www.missionrabies.com.

世界的なプロジェクトである「Mission Rabies」では、イヌでの病気(狂犬病)を根絶し、ヒトの死亡を防ぐために必要なとされる、イヌの 70% にワクチン接種することを目指している。カンボジアにおけるワクチン接種の推進活動は、動物衛生生産総合局、カンボジアパスツール研究所、およびカンボジアの2つの動物福祉団体(アニマル・レスキュー・カンボジアプノンペン動物福祉協会)と提携して実施される。 ワクチン接種推進活動に関する最新情報は、http://www.missionrabies.com で入手できる。

[byline: Alessandra Pacelli]
[署名:Alessandra Pacelli]


communicated by:

[The global number of human fatalities needs updating (see earlier discussions). - Mod.AS

「(狂犬病による)世界的な死者数は更新する必要がある(以前の議論を参照)。 - Mod.AS」

ProMED map of Cambodia(カンボジアのProMED地図):



[4] Israel (Kibbutz Hamadia): jackal, spread
Date: Wed 31 May 2023
Source: Circular of Israel's State Field Veterinary Services [in Hebrew, trans. Mod.AS, abridged, edited]

[4] イスラエルキブツ・ハマディア):ジャッカル、感染の拡大

日付:2023年5月31日 水曜日

情報源:Circular of Israel's State Field Veterinary Services


Subject: Rabies case no. 23 for 2023 - jackal, Kibbutz Hamadia

表題:狂犬病症例2023年No.23 - ジャッカル、キブツ・ハマディア
re: Laboratory report No. A00484141 dated 31 May 2023

Please be informed that rabies was reported on Tue 30 May 2023, in a golden jackal in Kibbutz Hamadia. The jackal was brought for testing to the Kimron Veterinary Institute and found positive for rabies.

[(Signed) Dr Sergio Dolev, deputy director Veterinary Services & director, Field Veterinary Services]
communicated by:

[The case described has become Israel's 23rd animal confirmed as rabid since the start of 2023, involving a total of 14 jackals, 4 dogs, and 5 cattle. This is about twice the number of cases in animals detected in the same period of 2022 (presenting a total of 12 cases, of which 6 jackals, 3 dogs, 2 cattle, and one cat). The rabid jackal in Kibbutz Hamadia reported above, is included in the cluster bordering Jordan (see further).

A dynamic rabies map, presenting Israel's 2023 cases as of 31 May 2023, is available at https://moag.maps.arcgis.com/apps/webappviewer/index.html?id=f4848149b9b643bc9bc0427d22f439fa. It presents the 2 clusters. The cluster adjacent to the Lebanese front has been observed for more than 10 years and has been subject to earlier commentaries, such as the one included in 20220910.8705507 (item 1). The cluster bordering North-West Jordan (since 1 Jan 2023, a total of 11 cases: 8 jackals, 2 cattle, and a dog), started during the 2nd half of 2022. This event is reminiscent of the explosive outbreak in jackals which started in August 2017 on the Jordanian border, spreading south-westward, peaking in early 2018; it occurred despite Israel's wildlife vaccination scheme and required the country's State Veterinary Services to declare large parts of northern Israel as "high risk" region, applying severe control measures, including preventive mass vaccination of livestock and intensification of the baited-vaccine application (see commentary to item 1 in 20180611.5850724).
2023年5月31日時点でのイスラエルにおける2023年の症例を示す動的な狂犬病地図は、(URLは省略)で入手可能である。 そこでは、2つのクラスターが表示されている。レバノン前線に隣接するクラスターは10年以上観察されており、以前に20220910.8705507(項目1)にて解説されている。ヨルダン北西部と国境を接するクラスター(2023年1月1日以降、ジャッカル8頭、牛2頭、犬1頭の計11例)は、2022年下半期に発生した。このクラスター発生は、2017年8月にヨルダン国境で始まり、南西方向に広がり、2018年初めにピークに達したジャッカルでの爆発的な発生を彷彿とさせる。このクラスターは、イスラエルにおける野生動物ワクチン接種計画にもかかわらず発生し、同国の国家獣医局に対し、家畜の予防的集団ワクチン接種や経口ワクチンの適用強化などの厳しい管理措置を適用して、イスラエル北部の大部分を「高リスク」地域として宣言することを要求した(20180611.5850724 の項目1での解説を参照)。


Most likely, rabies is currently circulating also in jackals on the eastern side of the Jordan River which separates Israel from the Kingdom of Jordan. - Mod.AS
おそらく、現在、狂犬病イスラエルヨルダン王国を隔てるヨルダン川の東側のジャッカルでも流行していると考えられる。 - Mod.AS

ProMED map of Israel(イスラエルのProMED地図): 


[5] Jordan (Greater Amman): prevention, owned dogs
Date: Wed 16 May 2023
Source: Akhbar al Yoom [in Arabic, trans., edited]

[5] ヨルダン(大アンマン地方):予防、飼い犬


情報源:Akhbar al Yoom(アラビア語、翻訳、編集済)(URLは省略)

A system for monitoring and licensing dogs within the boundaries of the Greater Amman Municipality has been published in the Official Gazette, which will come into force as of today, Tuesday [16 May 2023]. It stipulates that it is forbidden for anyone who is within the borders of the Greater Amman Municipality to own any dog without obtaining a license and with a collar or any other identifying device approved by the Amman Municipality.



The system also stipulates that whoever desires to own a dog within the boundaries of the Greater Amman Municipality must:
Submit a written or electronic request to the Department on the approved form to obtain a possession license attached with a declaration that the dog does not pose a threat to public safety and does not cause inconvenience to the neighbors or a health hazard.




The system also required that a valid health certificate be attached to the dog, proving that he had received the required vaccinations, including the rabies vaccine. The system also requires the submission of a non-objection form that bears the approval and signatures of the neighbors of the property.



communicated by:

[It would be helpful to note if measures are undertaken to control the spread of rabies in other parts of the Kingdom, in particular wildlife and stray dogs within the Jordan Valley. - Mod.AS


- Mod.AS

ProMED map of Jordan(ヨルダンのProMED地図):


[6] Lebanon (south): control and prevention, UNIFIL involvement
Date: Tue 9 May 2023
Source: Khiyam.com (Al-Marj Forum for Development and Environmental Protection) [in Arabic, trans., edited]

[6] レバノン(南部):制御と予防、国際連合レバノン暫定駐留軍の関与

日付:2023年5月9日 火曜日

情報源:Khiyam.com (Al-Marj Forum for Development and Environmental Protection) (アラビア語、翻訳、編集済)

The 1st Beirut International Veterinary Conference, which was held 5-7 May 2023 at the Royal Hotel in Dbayeh, Lebanon, featured a distinguished group of speakers from around the world. Among them was Lieutenant-Colonel Anish of UNIFIL's Indian battalion, who delivered a lecture on rabies and the One Health approach.


Lt Col Anish shared his extensive knowledge and experience in the field of veterinary science, emphasizing the importance of the One Health approach to combating the spread of rabies. He explained that the One Health approach is a collaborative effort that recognizes the interdependence between human, animal, and environmental health and highlights the need for collaboration between the medical and veterinary fields to effectively address this problem.


The lecture was well received by the audience, which included veterinarians, researchers, and policy makers from different countries. Lt Col Anish's theories and experiences in the field of veterinary science were highly valued and his lecture sparked an interesting discussion on the subject.


Addressing the event, Lieutenant Colonel Anish said, "I am honored to have had the opportunity to share my knowledge and experiences at the 1st Beirut International Veterinary Conference. The One Health approach is critical to addressing complex global health issues, and it was important to be a part of such an engaging dialogue with experts from around the world.

Colonel Anish is the only vet in UNIFIL's Indian battalion, and his services are in high demand. Herders and farmers in UNIFIL's area of operations depend on regular visits by the INDBATT veterinary services to treat and vaccinate their livestock. He organized periodic veterinary campaigns in several villages in southern Lebanon, providing free vaccination services to shepherds and farmers who could not afford expensive veterinary care and medicines, ensuring the health and productivity of their livestock.
アニッシュ中佐はUNIFILインド大隊の唯一の獣医師であり、彼の任務には高い需要がある。UNIFILの活動地域の牧畜民と農民は、家畜の治療とワクチン接種のために INDBATT獣医療サービスの定期的な訪問に依存している。彼はレバノン南部のいくつかの村で定期的な獣医療キャンペーンを組織し、高価な獣医学的治療や医薬品を買う余裕のない羊飼いや農民に無料のワクチン接種サービスを提供し、家畜の健康と生産性を確保した。

UNIFIL peacekeepers regularly conduct and implement various support activities for host communities in the south. It should be noted that building, maintaining, and nurturing good relationships with local communities is an important aspect of the implementation of UN Security Council Resolution 1701.

UNIFIL 平和維持軍は、南部の受け入れコミュニティに対してさまざまな支援活動を定期的に実施している。地域社会との良好な関係を構築、維持、育成することが国連安全保障理事会決議1701号の履行の重要な側面であることに留意すべきである。

communicated by:

[The deteriorating rabies situation in Lebanon has been subject to analysis in a 2018 paper, authored by local professionals; its abstract was included in Rabies (38): Asia (Lebanon) human, spread (Israel) dog, human exposure 20220910.8705507 (item 1 and its commentary).

[レバノンで悪化する狂犬病の状況は、地元の専門家によって執筆された2018年の論文で分析の対象となっている。その要約は狂犬病 (38): アジア (レバノン) ヒト、感染の拡大 (イスラエル) 犬、ヒトへの曝露 20220910.8705507 (項目1とその解説) に含まれている。

According to WHO rabies statistics (https://apps.who.int/gho/data/view.main.NTDRABIESHUMANDEATHS, last updated 28 Nov 2022), information from Lebanon was obtained for 2015 (2 fatalities) and 2017 (1); no information since. A media article dated 7 Sep 2022, reported 2 new (separate) cases in juveniles in southern Lebanon within 2 months, one of whom was in the seaside town of Tyre. The other one was addressed in more detail, including a disturbing description of a 10-member family whose owned, unvaccinated dog was exposed to stray dogs and infected, before eventually dying, a one year old baby who was dying in a hospital, while other family members were rabies-suspected as well (final information not available). The (Arabic) newspaper argued that the Ministry of Health did not publish the said family event "for fear of panic that may affect people, so it is trying, according to informed sources, to turn a blind eye due to its inability to confront the emerging crisis." The paper further pleaded that "according to the same sources, the Ministry opened an investigation and took samples of the immunity of the affected family." Otherwise, "it did not take any preventive measures starting with pushing municipalities to remove waste from the roads, or prompting animal welfare associations to move to curb the danger." For more details, see https://tinyurl.com/bdf3r883. - Mod.AS
WHOの狂犬病統計(URLは省略、最終更新日2022年11月28日)によると、2015年(死亡者数:2)と2017年(死亡者数:1)についてはレバノンから情報が得られたが、それ以来、情報はない。 2022年9月7日付のメディア記事は、レバノン南部で2か月以内に2人の新たな(別々の)少年の感染者が発生し、そのうちの1人は海辺の町Tyreにいたと報じた。もう1例は、より詳細に取り上げられており、その中には、10人家族が所有するワクチン接種を受けていない飼い犬が野良犬から暴露を受けて感染し、最終的に死亡した1歳の子供についての憂慮すべき記述が含まれていた。他の家族も狂犬病の疑いがあった(最終的な情報は不明)。(アラビア語の)新聞では、保健省は「人々に影響を及ぼす可能性のあるパニックを恐れて、この家族の出来事を公表しなかった。情報筋によると、保健省は問題に立ち向かうことができないため見て見ぬふりをしようとしている」と主張した。同紙はさらに、「同じ情報源によると、同省は調査を開始し、影響を受けた家族の免疫サンプルを採取した。」と主張した。 それ以外では、「自治体に道路から廃棄物を撤去するよう促したり、動物愛護協会に危険を抑制するよう促したりするなどの予防策は何も講じられなかった」。 詳細については、(URLは省略)を参照すること。 - Mod.AS


ProMED map of Lebanon(レバノンのProMED地図): 



See Also

Rabies (17): Eurasia, Armenia (TV) dog, WOAH 20230428.8709754
Rabies (15): Eurasia, Armenia (LO) wolf, WOAH 20230426.8709707
Rabies (09): Asia (Taiwan) ferret-badger 20230313.8708911
Rabies (06): Asia (Kazakhstan) dog, livestock, WOAH 20230222.8708518
Rabies (02): Africa, Asia, Europe, human, animal 20230108.8707684
Rabies (53): Asia (Israel, India) animal, human, epidemiology, control

Rabies (49): global, annual deaths, 1990-2019 20221109.8706623
Rabies (41): Asia (Afghanistan, India, Israel, Malaysia, Philippines, Vietnam) 

Rabies (39): Asia (Lebanon) Middle East, animals, spread, control, comment

Rabies (38): Asia (Lebanon) human, spread (Israel) dog, human exposure

Rabies (23): Africa (South Africa, Zimbabwe), Europe (Spain), human, animal

Rabies (15): Africa (South Africa) dog, human, spread

Rabies (09): Eurasia (Ukraine, India, Israel) cat, human, cow, control

Rabies (06): Eurasia (Israel, Malaysia, Turkey) dog, owned, stray, human exp

Rabies (07): Asia, Pakistan (SD) human, Israel (HZ, HD) dog, spread

Rabies (05): Asia (Israel, Bangladesh) animal, human 20200219.7005843
Rabies (32): Asia (Malaysia, Bhutan) human, dog 20201205.7995796
Rabies (19): Asia (Malaysia, Indonesia, Japan ex Philippines) animal, human

Rabies (07): Asia (Cambodia, Indonesia, Israel) human, animal, control

Rabies (31): Africa (Kenya), Asia (Israel, Malaysia, Viet Nam) human, animal

Rabies (22): Asia (Malaysia, Israel), Europe (UK), WHO (global) human, animal

Rabies (57): Asia (Lebanon) human, animal 20181126.6165933
Rabies (15): Asia (Lebanon) canine, OIE 20180314.5687339
Rabies (03): Asia (Israel) wild, domestic, OIE 20180110.5550871
Rabies (02): Asia (Israel) wild, domestic, spread, control measures 20180109.5548024
Rabies (31): Asia (Malaysia) canine, feline, OIE 20170712.5170101
and other items in the archives