Date: Sun 23 Oct 2022 15:28 CEST
Source: Plus jeden deň [in Slovak, machine trans., edited]

Rabies has occurred in Slovakia for the 1st time since 2016. The Veterinary Institute Zvolen confirmed it in a shot badger in the village of Jabloň (Humenné district, Prešov Region of eastern Slovakia), as explained to TASR [News Agency of the Slovak Republic] by Martin Chudý, head of the animal health and protection department of the State Veterinary and Food Administration (ŠVPS) of the Slovak Republic. He did not rule out the occurrence of other rabid animals.
スロバキアで2016年以降初の狂犬病が発生した。スロバキア共和国の国家獣医食品管理省獣医衛生保護部局の責任者であるMartin Chudý氏のTASR(News Agency of the Slovak Republic)への説明によると、しズボレン獣医学研究所はJabloň村(スロバキア東部のプレショフ州フメンネ自治区)で撃たれたアナグマ狂犬病であると確認したようである。同氏は他の動物の狂犬病発生については否定していない。

In 2019, Slovakia met the requirements to be declared a rabies-free country. "Currently, veterinary experts are checking the possibilities of maintaining this status, even if in a certain modified form. Everything depends on the further development of the situation of the possible confirmation or non-confirmation of further cases in wild, farm, or companion animals," explained Chudý.

Before the confirmation of the case, in view of the epizootic situation in Hungary, Poland, and Ukraine, the Slovak Veterinary Service decided to continue the oral vaccination of foxes in the following years in the risk area. "We will continue to pay attention to preventive measures, monitoring, and measures when importing animals with regard to rabies," said Chudý, adding that since 1994 oral vaccination of foxes against rabies has been carried out in Slovakia. At the same time, he pointed out that when a dead animal is found, it is always necessary to proceed as if it were a rabid animal.

"Even an animal that was hit by a car could have been rabid in the last, paralytic stage of the disease. The relevant regional veterinary administration must always be notified at the location of such a dead animal, and will then take all necessary measures," explained Chudý. In the case of confirmation of rabies, the outbreak of the disease is declared, which is usually the cadastre [Cartography and Cadastre Authority of the Slovak Republic, which is the central body of state administration for geodesy, cartography, and real estate] of the municipality or the relevant city district. "Veterinary care authorities will issue veterinary measures to control the outbreak, which include a ban on moving susceptible animals beyond the declared outbreak area," he added.

Rabies manifests itself in 3 forms: furious, silent, and atypical. 3 stages are observed in the furious form. The 1st stage appears after the incubation period and lasts 1 to 2 days. "The animal becomes sad, depressed or apathetic, fearful, and restless. It takes refuge in dark places, often changes its body position for no reason, or expresses itself vocally," explained Chudý. According to him, the animals tend to be very thirsty and begin to show symptoms of a perverted taste, so they lick and swallow indigestible objects such as stones, dung, and wood.

In the 2nd stage, the animal shows dissatisfaction and excitement, which escalate to fury. "The animal is furious and attacks without limit and bites everything living and non-living that comes in its way. Beasts often bite off part of their own body in their rage," he added. In the final stage, the chewing and tongue muscles become paralyzed. "A lot of stringy saliva flows from the oral cavity, which the animal is unable to swallow due to the paralysis of the pharynx, tongue muscles, and chewing muscles," he added, adding that the animal eventually dies of suffocation. According to him, the paralytic stage lasts for half a day to 2 days.

"The silent form is characterized by the fact that the disease passes from the 1st melancholic stage to the paralytic stage," said Chudý. The atypical form is usually manifested by disorders of the digestive system, miscarriages, or a combination of symptoms. According to him, rabies is an acute viral disease of animals that can also be transmitted to humans, in whom it primarily affects the central nervous system, causes disturbances of consciousness, increased irritability, and later, total paralysis.

Communicated by:
ProMED Rapporteur Mahmoud Orabi

[In Europe, the oral rabies vaccination (ORV) of red foxes (_Vulpes vulpes_), the main reservoir of rabies in the continent, was developed in the late 1970s and has demonstrated its effectiveness in the eradication of the disease in Western and some Central European countries. Besides red foxes, rabies is common in raccoon dogs (_Nyctereutes procyonoides_, introduced in Europe), and also occurs in grey wolves (_Canis lupus_), arctic foxes (_Alopex lagopus_), badgers (_Meles meles_), pine martens (_Martes martes_) and polecats (_Mustela putorius_). Individuals of other species may occasionally be infected.- Mod. PMB
ヨーロッパではヨーロッパ大陸での狂犬病の主たる保有動物であるアカキツネ(_Vulpes vulpes_)に対する経口ワクチン接種(ORV)が1970年台後半に開発され、西欧や一部の中欧諸国で本病の撲滅についてその有効性が証明されている。アカキツネ以外にも狂犬病は、タヌキ(_Nyctereutes procyonoides_,ヨーロッパに持ち込まれた)や、灰色オオカミ(_Canis lupus_)、北極キツネ(_Alopex lagopus_)、アナグマ(_Meles meles_)、マツテン(_Martes martes_)、ヨーロッパケナガイタチ(_Mustela putorius_)などで見られる。他の動物種にも時に感染することもある。モデレータPMB

ProMED map:
Jabloň, Prešovský kraj, Slovakiahttps://promedmail.org/promed-post?place=8706417,68824]

See Also

Rabies (40): Europe (Hungary) fox, WOAH 20220928.8705844
Rabies (35): Europe (Ukraine) marten, human exp 20220812.8705007
Rabies (27): Europe (Ukraine) marten 20220701.8704188
Rabies (51): Europe (Lithuania) red fox, OIE 20181025.6111898
Rabies (50): Europe, PEP; Asia, human, animal 20180929.6061040
Rabies (47): Asia (Myanmar) human, canine 20180904.6007321
Rabies (44): Asia (Mongolia) bovine 20180811.5960000
Rabies (43): Europe (Norway) reindeer, OIE 20180731.5939294
Rabies (42): Asia (China) human, vaccine production violations 20180726.5930248
Rabies (34): Eurasia (Armenia) canine, OIE 20180615.5858795
Rabies (32): Asia (Kazakhstan) canine, OIE 20180614.5856315
Rabies (31): Africa (Kenya), Asia (Israel, Malaysia, Viet Nam) human, animal 20180611.5850724
Rabies (26): Asia (Kazakhstan) fox, OIE 20180524.5816417
Rabies (23): Europe (Norway) fox, OIE 20180508.5789777
Rabies (22): Asia (Malaysia, Israel), Europe (UK), WHO (global) human, animal 20180505.5786343
Rabies (15): Asia (Lebanon) canine, OIE 20180314.5687339
Rabies (14): Asia (Kazakhstan) feline, OIE 20180314.5684768
Rabies (13): Africa (Zimbabwe) wild dog 20180313.5683456
Rabies (12): Africa (S Africa) Asia (Thailand) animal, human 20180228.5655831
Rabies (11): Asia (Kazakhstan) livestock, wolf, OIE 20180221.5643296
Rabies (09): Asia (Israel) wildlife, spread (India) human, treatment modified 20180203.5604913
Rabies (08): Asia (Malaysia-SK) human, animal 20180127.5589162
Rabies (03): Asia (Israel) wild, domestic, OIE 20180110.5550871
Rabies (02): Asia (Israel) wild, domestic, spread, control measures 20180109.5548024
Rabies - Lithuania: (Utena) raccoon dog, OIE 20151109.3778429
Rabies, human - Lithuania (03) 20040415.1038
Rabies, human - Lithuania (02): background 20040318.0754
Rabies, human - Lithuania: RFI 20040316.0728
Rabies, laboratory mice - Lithuania: alert 20010225.0370