※ 和訳は正確を期していますが、必ず原文を参照して下さいますようお願いします。

In this update:
[1] South Africa, human, canine
[2] Egypt, human, canine
[3] Israel (north) jackals, human exposure

[1] 南アフリカ,ヒト,イヌ

[2] エジプト,ヒト,イヌ

[3] イスラエル(北部)ジャッカル,ヒト暴露
[1] South Africa, human, canine.

[1] 南アフリカ,ヒト,イヌ
Date: Mon 1 Feb 2021
Source: IOL (South Africa) [edited]

As reported by the National Institute for Communicable Diseases (NICD) in January [2021], a 10 year old boy was bitten by a dog in Umbumbulu in November 2020. No medical consultation was sought until the child experienced nausea, vomiting, confusion, and restlessness, and died on 7 Jan 2021. Rabies virus antigen was detected in a postmortem brainspecimen, collected on 12 Jan 2021.

国立感染症研究所(National Institute for Communicable Diseases: NICD)は,2月[2021],2020年11月にUmbumbuluで10歳の少年が犬に噛まれ,その少年は,吐き気,嘔吐,錯乱,そして不穏を呈するまで診察を受けず,2021年1月7日に死亡したと声明を出した.2012年1月12日に採取された剖検での脳組織から,狂犬病ウイルス抗原が検出された.

"In 2020, a total of 7 cases of human rabies were laboratory-confirmed in South Africa, 6 of which originated in KZN and one in Limpopo. This compares to 10 laboratory-confirmed human cases in 2019," the NICD statement said. "In addition, 3 children were identified in 2020 who had dog bites/exposure and died of clinically compatible rabies disease. These cases could not be confirmed in the laboratory and were classified as probable cases in the provinces of KZN, Limpopo and Eastern Cape."

NICDは「2020年,南アフリカでは合計7症例のヒト狂犬病が確定された.6例がKZN(クワズール・ナタール州)および1例がLimpopo(リンポポ)州だった.2019年は,10例が確定された」と表明した.「それ以外に,子どもが3名,犬に噛まれたり暴露したりした後,臨床的に狂犬病のような症状を呈して死亡した.これらの症例は確定診断が出来ず,KZN,LimpopoおよびEastern Cape(東ケープ)州で疑い例と分類された.

The statement also said that there was a report of suspected rabies encephalitis in a 10 year old child in KZN based on symptoms (disorientation, confusion, delirium, aggressiveness, anxiety, agitation) and a history of dog bite in December 2020. For this case, post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) delivery was adequate, and SARS-CoV-2 infection rather than rabies was confirmed as the cause of encephalitis after laboratory testing. Fortunately, the child survived, whereas rabies is inevitably fatal once symptoms appear [see comment].


Rabies encephalitis is an acute infection involving the central nervous system in humans and other mammals caused by an RNA virus of the rhabdovirus family. Transmission is through dog and wild animal bites.
[byline: Thobeka Ngema]

狂犬病による脳炎は,ラブドウイルス科のRNAウイルスによるヒトおよび他のほ乳動物の中枢神経系を侵す急性感染である.感染は,イヌおよび野生動物の咬傷による[byline: Thobeka Ngema].

communicated by: ProMED <promed@promedmail.org>

[The above link was received from a veterinarian, who preferred to remain unnamed, and included the following 2 added pieces of information: - "At least 5 children, aged between 2 and 10 years old, have died from human rabies in 5 months in KwaZulu-Natal." - "In November 2020, the National Institute for Communicable Diseases (NICD) said the largest proportion of human rabies cases in the country historically occurred in KZN. Then, 160 canines were diagnosed with rabies through laboratory surveillance." - Mod.AS]


[2] Egypt, human, canine

Date: Sun 27 Dec 2020
Source: Gulf News [edited]

Children were playing safely in the streets of a village in Qena governorate in southern Egypt, when a dog came running over, and suddenly jumped high and swooped onto the neck of one of the children, dropping him to the ground, knocking him down, and then biting into him. Then the rabid animal attacked everyone he met, until he tried to wrest a child from his father's hands, local media reported.


Egyptian media said that surveillance cameras monitored the attack that took place in the Haswiya area, east of Qena, Upper Egypt, which resulted in 10 children being [bitten], which caused a state of panic among the people, who sought help from the emergency police and veterinary officials.

In a telephone interview with the Egyptian DMC TV, Dr Mohamed Al Qirsh, a spokesman for the Ministry of Agriculture revealed the details of the dog attack on a number of children in Qena Governorate. He said: "The people and the Civil Defense Forces caught the animal and eliminated it, and veterinary doctors dissected it, and it turned out that it was an [unowned, stray] dog."

エジプトDMCテレビによる,Dr. Mohamed Al Qirsh農務省報道官に対する電話インタビューで,Qena行政区における多数の子どもに対するイヌによる攻撃の詳細が明らかにされた.彼は,「市民と自警団がその動物を捕獲・殺処分し,獣医師によって解剖された。そのイヌは放浪犬である事が判った」と述べた.

Article 357 of Egypt's Penal Code imposes jail time of 6 months or less or a fine of 200 Egyptian pounds for anyone found to have intentionally killed a domesticated animal, according to lawyer Khaled Mohamed. Stray dogs and other animals are common throughout Egypt and can usually be seen digging through garbage or trotting along city streets.

Khaled Mohamed弁護士によれば,家畜を故意に殺した場合にはエジプトの刑法第357条により,6ヶ月以下の懲役又は200エジプト・ポンドの罰金に処される.放浪犬や放浪動物はエジプト全土で一般的であり,街の通りでゴミをほったり闊歩したりしている.


 Regarded by many as a nuisance, public health issue, or even dangerous, some individuals have taken the matter into their own hands, poisoning stray animals or harming them in other ways, a trend the law seeks to address. Mohamed clarified that the article applies to dogs, cats, poultry, and other types of domesticated animals, as well as wild animals that have been trained or who live in captivity, like big cats and other types of birds.


Mahmoud Shalaby, the fatwa secretary of Egypt's Dar Al Iftaa, a government Islamic educational institute, also said that killing stray dogs is not permissible, stressing that Islam does not sanction harming animals in this way. Shalaby added that it is not permissible to kill stray dogs or other animals unless they represent a direct threat to human beings, adding that any danger associated with stray animals should be dealt with via a complaint to Egyptian authorities.

政府のイスラム教に関する教育機関である,エジプトのダールイフタ(Dar Al Ifta:イスラム教の最高権威機関とされる)の(イスラム法学に基づく見解である)ファトワを担当するMahmoud Shalaby大臣は,放浪犬を殺すことは許されざる事と述べ,イスラムはこの様な方法で動物に危害を加えることを認めないと強調した.Shalabyは,更に,ヒトに対して直接的な脅威とならない限り,放浪犬を殺すことまたは他の動物を殺すことは容認されず,放浪動物に関係するいかなる危険についても,エジプトの公的機関への申立を通じて解決されるべきであると述べた.

Al Azhar [I think this refers to the university in Cairo. - Mod.SH] explained the rule against killing stray dogs, noting that the Sharia, or Islamic law, understands animals' relationship with people in a realistic way, whether based on their importance in sustaining life or other benefits to humans. The Holy Qur'an, it said, asks human beings to honor animals, and does not sanction causing them unnecessary harm.

Al Azhar(おそらくカイロにある大学のことを意味している-編集SH注)は,(イスラムの戒律である)シャリア又はイスラム法に規定されていないが,ヒトの命を維持する為に重要性であろうと,それ以外の利益に基づこうとも,現実的な方法でのヒトと動物の関係の理解から,放浪犬を殺処分することに反対する規則を説明した.コーランは、人間に動物を大切に扱うように求めており、動物に不必要な危害を加えることを許していない。

"The fundamental principle is (showing) charity towards animals, and, therefore, it is not permissible to kill dogs or other stray animals except if they pose a threat (to people), such as if they threaten the security of local communities and the safety of citizens," Al Azhar noted. It went on to explain that the killing of animals should be done in a way that does not include unnecessary harm or torture, "provided that (putting an animal down) is the only way to stop the threat (it poses to human beings)."

「基本的な原則は,動物に対する慈悲の精神(を示すこと)であり,そして,それ故,彼らが地域社会の治安および市民の安全を脅かすような,人々に対する脅威を示さない限り,犬やそれ以外の放浪動物を殺すことは許容されない」とAl Azharは言及した.更に,動物を殺す際には,不必要な苦しみや折檻を与えてはならないと述べている.「(動物を安楽死する)条件は,(動物による人に対する)脅威を止める唯一の法法である場合である」

In November last year [2019], citizens in the Egyptian resort town of Hurghada had been reported as complaining about attacks from stray dogs involving women, the elderly, and schoolchildren, a phenomenon that some officials at the time said could threaten tourism in the Red Sea Governorate. Ibrahim Abu Ali, a lawyer in Safaga, said that an Italian tourist, 55, and a German tourist, 40, filed 2 claims with police stations in Safaga after being bitten by stray dogs. The issue left officials stumped as to how to control the stray dog population, especially considering that foreign-led animal welfare societies and rights groups oppose the use of violence to get rid of stray dogs.

昨年(2019年)11月,エジプトのリゾート地であるHurghadaの市民が,女性,老人,学童が放浪犬に襲われたと申し立て,この事態について,その時点で,紅海行政区の観光業に脅威となり得ると,複数の行政担当者が述べた.SafagaのIbrahim Abu Ali弁護士は,55歳のイタリア人観光客,40歳のドイツ人観光客が,放浪犬に咬まれた後,Safagaの警察署に届け出たと述べた.この問題は,特に放浪犬を取り除くための暴力の使用に対し,外国人に主導される動物福祉団体や権利団体が反対する事を考慮し,行政府がどのように放浪犬の数を管理するのかという問題の難しさを明らかにした.

According to a report from Ahram Online, Egypt's agriculture Ministry reported about 400 000 cases of dog bites in 2017, a 100 000 increase compared with numbers in 2014. Moreover, 231 people have died in the last 4 years from complications related to dog bites. Most of the deaths were caused by rabies. Around 60 people die each year from rabies in Egypt, which is incurable if not detected early, according to statistics provided by the World Health Organisation in 2017.

Ahram onlineの報告では,エジプト農務省によれば2017年に40万件の犬の咬傷事故が報告されており,これは2014年に比較して10万件増加している.更に,過去4年間に犬の咬傷に関連した死者は231名に上る.大部分は狂犬病で死亡した.世界保健機構の2017年の統計資料によれば,エジプトでは,毎年60名程度が早期に検知されない限り,致命的である狂犬病で死亡する.
[byline: Samir Salama]

communicated by: ProMED <promed@promedmail.org>

[The above media report illustrates the complex situation, including moral and religious aspects, in which a Near East country suffering urban (dog transmitted) rabies has to operate while exercising rabies prevention and control activities in animals and humans. See <https://twitter.com/OIEAnimalHealth/status/1355521154220503042/photo/1>.- Mod.AS]


[3] Israel (north) jackals, human exposure

Date: Tue 2 Feb 2021
Source: JDN (Israel) [in Hebrew, trans. edited]

In the past 2 days, 9 people have attended the Galilee Medical Center in Nahariya after being bitten by jackals. None of the casualties who arrived at the hospital were in a serious condition, and most of the injuries involved the limbs, but the concern is rabies. [A video posted at the URL above, captured on security cameras in a factory yard, shows a jackal approaching one of the workers unexpectedly, starting to attack, eventually biting and tripping the worker to the ground. - Mod.AS]

過去2日間,9名が複数のジャッカルによる咬傷のため,NahariyaのGalilee Medical Centerで治療された.病院に到着した時点では,重体の被害者はおらず,大部分は足を咬まれていたが,狂犬病感染が心配される(上記URLの,工場の裏庭にある監視カメラに写った映像では,ジャッカルの1頭が,従業員の一人に急に攻撃を始め,その後その従業員に噛み付き地面に転がしていた.-編集AS)

The Nature and Parks Authority said: "We estimate that these are rabies-infected jackals because of their behavior and the fact that they are approaching humans. We hope to locate and eradicate them so that they do not continue to spread the disease."



Dan Alon, an ecologist at the Society for the Protection of Nature in Israel, explained that "The size of the jackal population in Israel as a whole, and in the north of the country in particular, is very high, directly resulting from surplus food available to them, in both open and urban areas. Unfortunately, this is the result of improper management of the waste economy in Israel, such as agricultural waste, which is not transferred to proper and orderly treatment and is thrownin open bins and in places that are not suitable for it."

Society for the Protection of Nature in Israelの生態学者,Dan Alonは,「イスラエルに全体,特に北部におけるジャッカルの個体数はとても多く,これは地方においても都市部においても,彼らにとって利用可能な食料が多いことに起因している.不幸にも,これはイスラエルにおける不適切な廃棄物管理,即ち農業分野での廃棄物などが適切に移送されず,蓋のないゴミ収集容器や不適切な場所に置かれることの結果である.

The Nahariya Municipality stated that it operates in accordance with the guidelines of the Nature and Parks Authority: "These are protected wildlife, which come from the open areas around the city. The only authority authorized to deal with the actual phenomenon are the inspectors of the Nature and Parks Authority." However, they called on residents to keep their yards clean, dump garbage in closed bags into garbage cans, and to keep the bins closed in order to prevent jackalsfrom continuing to arrive in the city.


[byline: Chummy Berman]

communicated by: ProMED <promed@promedmail.org>

[Nahariya, the town in and around which the above events took place, is in the Western Galilee, an area in northern Israel bordering southern Lebanon. The regions bordering Lebanon have been suffering rabies in spite of the oral vaccination scheme for wildlife (foxes and jackals), operational throughout Israel in the past 20 years.

市街及び周辺地域で上記イベントが起きたNahariyaは,レバノン南部に接するイスラエル北部の国境地域のWsetern Galileeに位置する.レバノン国境地域は,イスラエル全土で過去20年にわたり行われてきた,野生動物(キツネ及びジャッカル)に対する経口ワクチン投与事業にもかかわらず,狂犬病に苦しんでいる.

Apparently, rabid animals penetrate the border fencing and infect local wild and stray animals, which have evaded the immunization since. Due to security reasons, the application of airplanes for the dispersal of oral baits with vaccine cannot be applied close to the border. Oral vaccination is not applied in Lebanon.


The abundance of rabies cases in stray dogs and wildlife assumed to prevail in south Lebanon (Janoub/Nabatieh governorates), challenging the local population, warrants control and preventive measures to be urgently applied. According to a recent review (ref 1) addressing human rabies in Lebanon, the Nabatieh governorate suffered the highestrate of human bites in the country (56.31/100 000).

レバノン南部(Janoub / Nabatieh行政区)では,多数の放浪犬及び野生動物で狂犬病が流行していると想定され,地域の住民にとって脅威となっており,緊急的に管理及び予防対策を必要とする.最近の総説(ref 1)では,レバノンでのヒトの狂犬病について論じられており,Nabatieh行政区は,国内で最も咬傷事故の発生件数が多い(56.31/100 000).

An interactive map, presenting the animal rabies cases in Israel during 2020, indicating the species involved (jackals light blue, foxes brown) is available at <https://moag.maps.arcgis.com/apps/webappviewer/index.html?id=a6d8aae5cbc04c958d5efefd2724318f>.
Note the absence of rabies elsewhere in Israel. Coordinated application of oral vaccination on a regional basis would benefit all.


1. Kassir MF, El Zarif T, Kassir G, et al. Human rabies control in
Lebanon: a call for action. Epidemiol Infect. 2019; 147: e46. <https://doi.org/10.1017/S095026881800300X>.
 - Mod.AS

HealthMap/ProMED maps:
South Africa: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/179>
Egypt: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/55>
Israel: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/90>]

[See Also:
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human http://promedmail.org/post/20200628.7517416
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