狂犬病 (04):南北アメリカ(メキシコ、アメリカ合衆国)野生動物、ネコ、人暴露、死亡例



In this post:
[1] Oaxaca and Nayarit: bat, cat, human exposure
[2] Oaxaca: update on bat bite victims
[3] New Jersey (Middlesex County): dog, raccoon
[4] Arizona (Pinal County): bobcat, human exposure
[5] Virginia (Chesapeake): fox, human exposure
[6] Georgia (Habersham County): kitten, human exposure
[7] Virginia (Rockingham County): cat, possible human exposure



[1] オアハカ州および ナヤリト州: コウモリ、ネコ、人暴露
[2] オアハカ州: コウモリヒト咬傷事例(更新)

[3] ニュージャージー州ミドルセックス郡): イヌ、アライグマ
[4] アリゾナ州(ピナル郡 ):ボブキャット、人暴露
[5] バージニア州(チェサピーク市): キツネ、人暴露
[6] ジョージア州(ハーバーシャム郡):子猫、人暴露
[7] バージニア州(ロッキンガム郡):ネコ、人暴露の可能性

[1] Oaxaca and Nayarit: bat, cat, human exposure
Date: Sat 31 Dec 2022
Source: Outbreak News Today [edited]

[1] オアハカ州および  ナヤリト州: コウモリ、ネコ、人暴露




The state of Oaxaca, in southwestern Mexico, reported 4 cases of human rabies in December 2022, an infection transmitted through the bite of wild animals.
The health authorities reported an adult woman and 3 minors contracted the infection in the state of Oaxaca. Two of them, according to a statement from the local government, are in critical condition. 100% of the cases were the result of bat bites.

All the infections that have been reported come from the community of Palo de Lima, belonging to the Sierra Sur. According to Alma Lilia Velasco Hernández, health secretary in Oaxaca, the patients belong to an "extremely marginalized" community, which exposes them to potentially infected species.
報告された感染事例は全てが、シエラサー地区に属するパロ デ リマのコミュニティから報告されている。オアハカ州保健局長のアルマ リリア ベラスコ エルナンデス氏によると、患者たちは「極端に追いやられた」環境のコミュニティに属しているために、感染した可能性のある動物に晒されているようである。



The Nayarit government confirmed the 1st case of human rabies by domestic cat after the Institute of Epidemiological Diagnosis and Reference (InDRE) carried out the analysis.
The victim is a 29-year-old woman who was bitten by her pet. According to the investigation, the animal was not vaccinated and presented aggressive behavior.

"On 13 Nov [2022], a 29-year-old woman was bitten by a domestic cat she owned, but was not vaccinated against rabies, which exhibited aggressive behavior and died 3 days later. Almost 4 weeks later, the patient began with nervous symptoms compatible with rabies," the government reported. So far, the woman is reported with stable signs of life, but with a reserved life prognosis.

Communicated by:

[2] Oaxaca: update on bat bite victims
Date: Mon 9 Jan 2023
Source: Daily Star [edited]
[2] オアハカ州: コウモリヒト咬傷事例(更新)

情報源:デイリー スター

Two young siblings have died just days apart from rabies after being bitten by a bat.
An 8-year-old girl from the remote mountain village of Palo de Lima in Mexico passed away on Saturday (7 Jan [2023]), with her 7-year-old brother dying on 28 Dec [2022].
二人の幼い兄弟が一匹のコウモリに咬まれた後わずかな日の間に相次いで死亡した。メキシコの人里から離れた山間部のパロ デ リマ村に住む8歳の姉は土曜日((2023年)1月7日)に死亡したが、7歳の弟は(2022年)12月28日に死亡していた。

The boy passed away at Doctor Aurelio Valdivieso General hospital in Oaxaca, where tests didn't show he had contracted rabies until after he had lost his fight with the deadly viral disease.
弟はオアハカ州のオーレリオ バルディビソ博士総合病院で死亡したが、少年がその致命的ウイルス病との戦いに敗れるまで、少年が狂犬病に罹っているとは検査では示されていなかった。

A 3rd child, their 2-year-old sister, was also taken in for 9 days of treatment but has now been released. She is reported by the Mirror to have been bitten on the back by the same animal that bit her 2 older siblings.

All 3 are understood to have been bitten towards the start of December [2022], with their grandfather getting them to hospital later in the month.

Regional officials have claimed that poverty was the factor preventing the family from getting them there sooner.

Ignorance about the situation on the part of the family was also alleged; however, in Mexico, criticism of the available medical provision for remote parts of the country has been aimed at the system since the incident.

In a statement, Oaxaca's Health Service said, "The 8-year-old patient from the village of Palo de Lima in the municipality of San Lorenzo Texmelucan, who was receiving medical assistance at Doctor Aurelio Valdivieso Hospital, died on Sat 7 Jan [2023]. She was admitted to hospital on 21 Dec 2022 with health problems after being bitten by a bat and was diagnosed as being in a serious state of health by experts who evaluated her.
オアハカ州保健所は声明で、「サン ロレンツォ テクスメルカン自治体のパロ デ リマ村の8歳の患者はオーレリオ バルディビソ博士総合病院で治療を受けていましたが、1月(2023年)7日(土)に死亡しました。女の子はコウモリに咬まれた後健康を害して2022年12月21日に入院しましたが、女の子を診察した専門医は深刻な状況だと診断しました。」

"During her stay in the medical centre, a group of multidisciplinary specialists were keeping a close eye on her evolution. However, she suffered irreparable damage to her health, which resulted in her tragic death."

Dogs and cats in Palo de Lima have since been vaccinated for rabies by medical officials from Oaxaca.
その後、パロ デ リマの犬と猫はオアハカ州保健担当者によって狂犬病ワクチン接種を受けた。

[Byline: Douglas Patient, Harry Thompson, and Natalia Penza]

Communicated by:

[3] New Jersey (Middlesex County): dog, raccoon
Date: Wed 4 Jan 2023
Source: NJ.com [edited]


[3] ニュージャージー州ミドルセックス郡): イヌ、アライグマ



A raccoon that got into an altercation with a dog last week at a South Brunswick dog park has tested positive for rabies, according to an alert from the South Brunswick Police Department.

The incident happened on 29 Dec [2022] at the Rocky Top Dog Park on Route 27, but investigators did not disclose exactly what happened or if the dog was severely injured. [There is no mention if the dog was vaccinated against rabies, nor if it was owned and there was follow-up with its owners. The concern is that the dog, if injured by the raccoon and not vaccinated, may have been exposed to the rabies virus, and if it wasn't home with its family, this could present a threat to the family. - Mod.TG]

The raccoon was eventually retrieved by animal control and sent for testing at the Public Health & Environmental Laboratories in Trenton, police said. On Tuesday [3 Jan 2023], the local health department was notified the raccoon tested positive for rabies.

Rabies is an infectious disease attacking the central nervous system. It travels from the brain to salivary glands during the final stages, making an animal become infectious days before it dies.

It cannot travel from one animal to another unless skin is broken, and it is not airborne, but any open wounds that come in contact with saliva are in jeopardy.

Police asked anyone who felt they or their animals have had an incident involving a wild animal to contact South Brunswick Animal Control or the South Brunswick Health Department.

[Byline: Chris Sheldon]

Communicated by:

[4] Arizona (Pinal County): bobcat, human exposure
Date: Wed 4 Jan 2023
Source: AZ Central [edited]
[4] アリゾナ州(ピナル郡 ):ボブキャット、人暴露

情報源:A Zセントラル(編集済み)


A Saddlebrooke man received treatment for rabies after a bobcat believed to be infected with the disease attacked him Wednesday [4 Jan 2023] morning.

Mark Hart, a spokesperson for the Arizona Game and Fish Department, said the bobcat attacked the man while he was sitting on his porch near Flower Ridge Drive at about 8:23 a.m., scratching him on his right leg and left arm, drawing blood. Hart said bobcat attacks are extremely rare and usually happen because the animal is in the late stages of rabies.

Hart said the man was taken to a hospital in Oro Valley for rabies treatment, as the disease is transferable through scratches and bites.

Anyone who sees a bobcat in the area that's acting irrationally should notify the Arizona Game and Fish Department.

Hart said the bobcat would have to be euthanized, as the rabies infection had likely advanced too much for treatment. He urged anyone attacked by an animal to seek medical treatment, as it's likely the animal is rabid, and rabies is quite dangerous if left untreated. [There is no treatment for animals exposed to rabies. While the animal may go into quarantine for an extended period of time, there is no treatment if the animal is infected with rabies virus and not current on the rabies prevention vaccine. - Mod.TG]
[Byline: Perry Vandell]
Communicated by:

[5] Virginia (Chesapeake): fox, human exposure
Date: Fri 6 Jan 2023
Source: WTKR.com [edited]
[5] バージニア州(チェサピーク市): キツネ、人暴露



The Chesapeake Health Department says they recently received a report from Chesapeake Animal Services (CAS) regarding an unprovoked encounter between a fox and a local resident.

The incident happened on 2 Jan [2023] near Mt. Pleasant Rd. in the Butts Road area of Chesapeake. Testing confirmed the fox was rabies positive, according to the CHD. The resident is currently undergoing post-exposure medical attention.

Residents are advised to avoid contact with wildlife in the area and ensure all pets and livestock are current on vaccinations.

Rabies is a deadly disease caused by a virus that attacks the nervous system. It kills almost any mammal or human getting sick from it, the Virginia Department of Health (VDH) emphasizes. The rabies virus is mainly in the saliva and brain of rabid animals.

VDH says it can be transmitted through a bite or by getting saliva or brain tissue in a wound, eye, nose, or mouth. Rabies is rare in currently vaccinated animals.

"An animal exposure is a serious medical event, for which prompt evaluation is critical. A prompt assessment will lead to a timely response, which may include observation or testing of an animal [testing an animal involves euthanasia to examine the brain. - Mod.TG], and when necessary, rabies vaccinations [and post-exposure prophylaxis for the exposed individual - Mod.TG]. Rabies is highly preventable if the vaccine is given early and as recommended. Unfortunately, without preventive treatment, by the time someone develops symptoms of rabies, there is no cure, and the disease is fatal in almost 100% of cases," said Dr. Nancy Welch, health director for the Chesapeake Health Department.

To prevent rabies in dogs and cats, keep them up to date on their rabies vaccinations.
[Byline: Julia Varnier]

(ジュリア バーニャ署名)

Communicated by:

[6] Georgia (Habersham County): kitten, human exposure
Date: Sat 7 Jan 2023
Source: Now Habersham [edited]
[6] ジョージア州(ハーバーシャム郡):子猫、人暴露

情報源:ナウ ハーバーシャム(編集済み)



Two staffers at the Habersham County Animal Shelter are undergoing treatment for possible exposure to rabies after a kitten at the shelter tested positive for the virus. [This is post-exposure prophylaxis. - Mod.TG]

The stray kitten was brought to the shelter on 20 Dec [2022] by someone who said they found it in a barn on L Ansley Road off BC Grant Road in the unincorporated area of Cornelia. The kitten had a leg injury and had been kept in isolation since its arrival at the shelter.

"Upon arrival, the male kitten was placed into the shelter's medical hold room and began treatment for his injuries. The kitten was improving physically and was a playful, friendly kitten," says Habersham County Animal Care and Control (HCACC) Director Madi Nix. But that soon changed.

On Tue 3 Jan [2023] an animal care technician reported during daily rounds the kitten seemed "off" and was acting strangely. The kitten appeared to be struggling with the injured leg. The kitten also appeared to have a decreased appetite.

By Wednesday [4 Jan 2023] morning, the on-duty animal care technician noticed the kitten was struggling to walk and was "jumping" at the cage door. She reported the behavioral change to Nix, who evaluated the animal.

According to Nix, the kitten appeared to be entering the "furious stage" of rabies and was aggressively attacking any objects presented to him. In addition, the kitten was displaying signs of paralysis, vocalizing loudly, and had dilated pupils and hydrophobia. [There are photos documenting the change in the kitten on the website. - Mod.TG]


Nix says the kitten was humanely euthanized and sent to the health department for rabies testing. The tests came back positive Friday [6 Jan 2023] afternoon, marking the 1st confirmed case of rabies in Habersham County this year [2023].

Even before the test results were returned, HCACC acted to get medical help for the 2 animal care technicians who'd been exposed to the rabid kitten.


"It is not uncommon for staff to be bitten, scratched, or come into contact with the bodily fluids of sick and diseased animals. With the clinical signs being displayed, we made the decision to have both staff members taken immediately to the Habersham County hospital for post-exposure treatment," says Nix.

Post-exposure treatment involves a series of shots to protect against the potentially deadly virus.

Because the kitten had been kept in isolation, Nix says no visitors to the shelter were exposed.

The shelter notified the person who found the kitten regarding the rabies diagnosis. While no exposure was reported, and the animal was not showing clinical signs when it was dropped off at the shelter (indicating that, at that time, it was not contagious), animal control officials urge residents to be vigilant when dealing with stray animals and wildlife. They also encourage residents to take steps to protect themselves and their pets against rabies.

"We cannot stress enough a current rabies vaccination can literally save your pet's life," says Nix.

In addition to vaccines, there are other things residents can do to guard against rabies:
- Avoid wildlife and animals you do not know.
- Do not allow your pet to roam; it can come in contact with rabid wildlife.
- Never feed or touch wild animals, especially bats, skunks, raccoons, or foxes.
- Seek medical attention immediately if bitten or exposed to the saliva of a wild animal.
- Contact your veterinarian if your pet was exposed to a bat, raccoon, skunk, or other wild carnivores.
- Do not encourage the feeding of unmanaged cat colonies. If you do feed cats, ensure they are part of a trap-neuter-return (TNR) colony and have been vaccinated for rabies.

  • 野生動物や知らない動物を避けること
  • あなたのペットが放浪することを許さないこと。狂犬病の野生動物に接触する可能性がある
  • 決して野生動物に餌を与えたり触れたりしないこと。特に、コウモリやスカンク、アライグマ、キツネ。
  • 野生動物に咬まれたり、唾液に曝されたりしたらすぐに病院で診療を受けること。
  • もしあなたのペットが。コウモリや、アライグマ、スカンク、あるいは他の野生哺乳動物に接触したらかかりつけの獣医師に連絡すること。
  • 管理されていない猫の集団に餌を与えることは勧めない。もしそれらの猫に餌を与えるなら、その猫たちが、捕獲去勢返還(TNR)の仲間の一員で、狂犬病ワクチン接種をしていることを確認すること。

State law and local ordinance require all cats and dogs 3 months of age or older to be vaccinated against rabies. Local animal control officers enforce vaccination violations to protect the human and pet populations.

Know the signs


The time between a bite and when rabies signs appear is called the incubation period. It may last for weeks or months. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, a bite by an animal during the incubation period does not carry a risk of rabies because the virus has not yet made it to the saliva.

Early signs of rabies may be gradual and hard to spot. During the 1st 2-4 days of infection, cats may have a fever, less energy than usual, and decreased appetite. [Be aware, these may also be the signs of other diseases if the animal is vaccinated against rabies. - Mod.TG]

Signs tend to progress quickly to weakness or paralysis of the legs, seizures, difficulty breathing, hypersalivation (too much saliva) due to difficulty swallowing, and abnormal behavior. Changes in behavior can range from extreme aggression to extreme depression or coma.

If you've been in contact with any wildlife or unfamiliar animals, particularly if you've been bitten or scratched, wash any wounds immediately with soap and water, then consult a healthcare provider to determine your risk for rabies or other illnesses.
[Byline: Joy Purcell]

(ジョイ パーセル署名)
Communicated by:

[7] Virginia (Rockingham County): cat, possible human exposure
Date: Tue 10 Jan 2023
Source: Augusta Free Press [edited]
[7] バージニア州(ロッキンガム郡):ネコ、人暴露の可能性

情報源:オーガスタ フリー プレス

A stray cat found on the James Madison University campus in Harrisonburg in mid-December [2022] has tested positive for rabies.
12月中旬(2022年)にハリソンバーグのジェームス マジソン大学キャンパスで見つかった放浪猫は狂犬病の検査で陽性だった。

The cat was brought to the Rockingham Harrisonburg SPCA [Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals] on 17 Dec [2022] and tested positive on 22 Dec [2022]. The cat was euthanized, according to the Central Shenandoah Health District (CSHD).

While the animal no longer poses a threat to the public, the CSHD is asking anyone who believes they, their child, or their pet may have made contact with a stray cat in the days leading up to 17 Dec [2022] to contact the Staunton-Augusta Health Department. [This would potentially include individuals at the SPCA. - Mod.TG]

Potential exposures to a rabid animal include bites, scratches, or contact with saliva by open wound or eyes, nose, and/or mouth.

CSHD encourages everyone to vaccinate their pets to protect them, family members, loved ones, and the community at large from rabies. Virginia law requires domestic animals to be vaccinated against rabies.

In addition to keeping pets vaccinated and keeping vaccinations current, take these steps to protect families and pets from exposure to rabies:

- Avoid contact with wild animals, such as raccoons and skunks, or stray cats and dogs.
- Do not feed wild animals or stray cats and dogs.
- Report stray animals to your local animal control agency.
- Eliminate outdoor food sources around the home.
- Keep pets confined to your property or walk them on a leash.
- For more information or to report possible exposure to the rabid cat, contact the Staunton-Augusta Health Department.
[Byline: Crystal Graham]

  • アライグマやスカンクのような野生動物、放浪する猫や犬との接触を避けなさい。
  • 野生動物や放浪猫や放浪犬に餌を与えない。
  • 放浪動物は地元の動物管理機関に報告しなさい。
  • 家の周りの食べ物になるようなものはなくしなさい。
  • ペットは敷地内に置くか、リードをつけて散歩しなさい。
  • 更なる情報やこの狂犬病の猫への暴露の可能性についての報告はスタントン オーガスタ保健局に連絡すること。

(クリスタル グラハム署名)
Communicated by:

[Rabies is a deadly virus! Deadly to animals and to untreated human beings.

Please don't take any chances with this disease. It wants your life, and it will take it, if you let it.

The good news is that there are ways to prevent this tragedy.
Preventions starts by keeping all your pets' rabies prevention vaccines up to date. Pets range in size from the small cat or dog to your horse, cows, sheep, and goats.

If you are bitten by an animal, especially a wild animal such as a skunk, fox, or coyote, or a domestic pet acting strangely, please clean the wound with soap and water and seek medical attention immediately. If you even think you have been bitten by a bat, seek medical treatment. Bats can bite and leave only a tiny scratch or no visible wound, but the rabies virus can enter the tiny scratch.

"Postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) consists of a dose of human rabies immune globulin (HRIG) and rabies vaccine given on the day of the rabies exposure, and then a dose of vaccine given again on days 3, 7, and 14. For people who have never been vaccinated against rabies previously, postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) should always include administration of both HRIG and rabies vaccine. The combination of HRIG and vaccine is recommended for both bite and non-bite exposures, regardless of the interval between exposure and initiation of treatment.

"People who have been previously vaccinated or are receiving pre-exposure vaccination for rabies should receive only vaccine.

"Adverse reactions to rabies vaccine and immune globulin are not common. Newer vaccines in use today cause fewer adverse reactions than previously available vaccines. Mild, local reactions to the rabies vaccine, such as pain, redness, swelling, or itching at the injection site, have been reported. Rarely, symptoms such as headache, nausea, abdominal pain, muscle aches, and dizziness have been reported. Local pain and low-grade fever may follow injection of rabies immune globulin."

"The vaccine should be given at recommended intervals for best results. Talk to your doctor or state or local public health officials if you will not be able to have your shots at the recommended interval. Rabies prevention is a serious matter, and changes should not be made in the schedule of doses. Patient assistance programs that provide medications to uninsured or underinsured patients are available for rabies vaccine and immune globulin.

"People cannot transmit rabies to other people unless they themselves are sick with rabies. PEP will protect you from developing rabies, and therefore you cannot expose other people to rabies. You can continue to participate in your normal activities."


"Human rabies immune globulin (HRIG) is administered only once, at the beginning of anti-rabies prophylaxis, to previously unvaccinated persons. This will provide immediate antibodies until the body can respond to the vaccine by actively producing antibodies of its own. If possible, the full dose of HRIG should be thoroughly infiltrated in the area around and into the wounds. Any remaining volume should be injected intramuscularly at a site distant from vaccine administration.

"HRIG should never be administered in the same syringe or in the same anatomical site as the 1st vaccine dose. However, subsequent doses of vaccine in the 4-dose series can be administered in the same anatomic location where the HRIG dose was administered.

"If HRIG was not administered when vaccination was begun, it can be administered up to 7 days after the administration of the 1st dose of vaccine. Beyond the 7th day, HRIG is not recommended since an antibody response to the vaccine is presumed to have occurred.
"Because HRIG can partially suppress active production of antibody, no more than the recommended dose should be administered. The recommended dose of HRIG is 20 IU/kg body weight. This formula is applicable to all age groups, including children."
HRIGは能動的な抗体産生を部分的に抑制する可能性があるので、決められた投与量を超える量を投与するべきではない。HRIGの推奨投与量は20 IU/kgである。この計算式は子供を含む全ての年齢層に適用できる。

"A regimen of 4 1-mL doses of HDCV or PCEC vaccines should be administered intramuscularly to previously unvaccinated persons.
HDCV もしくはPCECワクチンを1ml、4回投与する方法はワクチン未接種者に筋肉注射で投与すべきである。

"The 1st dose of the 4-dose course should be administered as soon as possible after exposure. Additional doses should be administered on days 3, 7, and 14 after the 1st vaccination. For adults, the vaccination should always be administered intramuscularly in the deltoid area (arm). For children, the anterolateral aspect of the thigh is also acceptable. The gluteal area should never be used for rabies vaccine injections because observations suggest administration in this area results in lower neutralizing antibody titers."

There is treatment if you are bitten, but it hinges on getting treatment immediately. - Mod.TG
ProMED maps:
Mexico: https://promedmail.org/promed-post?place=8707757,14
United States: https://promedmail.org/promed-post?place=8707757,106]


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Rabies (53): Americas (USA) fox, human exp 20191125.6797040
Rabies (50): Americas (USA) cat, dog, human exposure 20191110.6771632
Rabies (49): Americas (USA) fox, human exp 20191108.6769314
Rabies (48): Americas (USA) cat, dog, raccoon, human exp 20191031.6752781
Rabies (47): Americas (USA) skunk, alert 20191022.6740671
Rabies (45): Americas (USA) dog, skunk, raccoon, fox, human exp 20190917.6678064
Rabies (44): Americas (USA) bat, human exp 20190904.6657837
Rabies (43): Americas (USA) fox, bat, human exp 20190825.6639484
Rabies (42): Americas (USA) dog, cat, fox, raccoon, human exp 20190810.6615389
Rabies (40): Americas (USA) bat, human exp 20190730.6595948
Rabies (39): Americas (Canada, USA) bat, fox, kitten, raccoon, human 20190724.6584394
Rabies (38): Americas (Canada, USA) bat, fox, human 20190718.6574088
Rabies (37): Americas (USA) cat, fox, raccoon, human exp 20190707.6555131
Rabies (34): Americas (USA) cat, dog, skunk, bat, human exp 20190613.6517390
Rabies (30): Americas, USA (FL, NC) cat, fox, dog, human exposure 20190526.6488419
Rabies (28): Americas, USA, cattle, imported dogs, corr. 20190512.6466342
Rabies (28): Americas (USA) cattle, imported dogs 20190511.6465671
Rabies (26): Americas (USA) fox, raccoon, dog, human exposure 20190507.6459317
Rabies (13): Americas, USA (CO, PA) dog, cow, human exposure 20190327.6390272
Rabies (12): Americas, USA (SC, CT) raccoon, dog, human exp. 20190322.6380311
Rabies (11): Americas, USA (FL) raccoon, alert 20190320.6375303
Rabies (10): Americas, USA (SC) goat, human exposure 20190313.6365399
Rabies (09): Americas, USA (NY) raccoon, alert 20190313.6363251