※ 和訳は正確を期していますが、必ず原文を参照してくださいますようお願いします。



In this post:

[1] Canada: (Newfoundland and Labrador) arctic fox

[2] Canada: (Northwest Territories) dogs

[3] USA: Alabama (Elmore County) dog

[4] USA: Massachusetts (Boston College) bat, human exposure

[5] USA: Texas (Kerr County) fox, human exposure

[6] USA: Virginia (Madison County) cats, human exposure


[1] カナダ:(ニューファンドランド及びラブラドール)北極キツネ

[2] カナダ:(北西準州)イヌ

[3] アメリカ合衆国アラバマ州エルモア郡)イヌ

[4] アメリカ合衆国マサチューセッツ州ボストン大学)コウモリ、人暴露

[5] アメリカ合衆国テキサス州(カー郡)キツネ、人暴露

[6] アメリカ合衆国バージニア州(マジソン郡)ネコ、人暴露



[1] Canada: (Newfoundland and Labrador) arctic fox

Date: Sat 12 Feb 2022

Source: Outbreak News Today [edited]


[1] カナダ:(ニューファンドランド及びラブラドール)北極キツネ


情報源:アウトブレイクニュース トゥデイ(編集済み)



In a follow-up on a rabies case in an arctic fox in the community of Nain, the Provincial Government of Newfoundland and Labrador reports the confirmation of 3 positive rabies cases in foxes in Nain and is awaiting confirmation on 4 additional suspect cases, including 3 in Nain and 1 in Hopedale. Two of the 3 positive cases in Nain were in arctic foxes.




Communicated by: ProMED


[ProMED map of Newfoundland and Labrador Province, Canada:




[2] Canada: (Northwest Territories) dogs

Date: Fri 18 Feb 2022

Source: Cabin Radio [edited]


[2] カナダ:(北西準州)イヌ





Two dogs have tested positive for rabies in Tuktoyaktuk, while a 3rd is presumed positive, prompting the territorial government to issue another warning to residents in the community.



In November [2021], the NWT government warned residents of the hamlet 2 foxes had tested positive for rabies. It then cautioned residents earlier in February [2022] after 2 dogs showed signs of the disease.



According to Friday's [18 Feb 2022] advisory, signs in animals having rabies can include being fearful, aggressive, excessive drooling, difficulty swallowing, staggering, walking backwards, abnormal vocalizations, paralysis, and seizures. Aggressive behaviour is possible, but infected animals are more likely to be shy or calm and act strangely.



"With rabies being found in dogs and foxes in and around Tuktoyaktuk, you are also at risk of being exposed to this fatal disease if you are bitten or scratched or in contact with foxes or dogs in the community," the advisory states.



Anyone who has been bitten, licked, scratched, or in contact with the infected dogs, a fox, or any dog who is behaving oddly is advised to contact the health centre to get assessed. Rabies in humans can be fatal if untreated.



The advisory states anyone whose dog has been attacked by a fox or is showing signs of rabies should contact a wildlife officer immediately.




The NWT Department of Health and Social Services recommends residents get their dogs vaccinated for rabies. It added that people who regularly handle wildlife and animals like hunters and dog mushers should ensure their rabies vaccinations are up to date. [This advisory seems to indicate that residents should have their animals vaccinated, and human beings handling wildlife should obtain the pre-exposure rabies vaccination. - Mod.TG]


[Byline: Sarah Sibley]

(署名:Sarah Sibley)


Communicated by: ProMED


[ProMED map of Northwest Territories, Canada:




[3] USA: Alabama (Elmore County) dog

Date: Wed 16 Feb 2022 1:34 p.m. PST

Source: WSFA [edited]


[3] アメリカ合衆国アラバマ州エルモア郡)イヌ





A rabies case in Elmore County has prompted state health officials to remind the public the disease is out there, so stay cautious.



The Alabama Department of Public Health (ADPH) reports a family dog in the Harris Road area of Elmore contracted rabies, exposing the household. Everyone in the home is undergoing prevention treatment.



The dog's rabies diagnosis was confirmed by ADPH following an exam by a local veterinarian. Health officials say the dog, described as a beagle-mix, was not vaccinated. It was not kept in an enclosure and reportedly had some contact with strays in the area.



This case of rabies follows another case in Elmore County a couple of weeks ago. That one was in the Titus community. There were also at least 2 cases of rabid cats in the Prattville area last year [2021].



State health officials are investigating any potential exposure to the animal so they can notify those individuals of the proper treatment to prevent possible human transmission.



"First and foremost, our concern is identifying any person or animal possibly having had direct contact with an infected animal, so preventative treatment is needed. The nature of the risks of human exposure to rabies has dramatically declined over the last 60 years or so, but since the virus is still seen frequently in raccoons, the risk is still relevant," said state public health veterinarian Dr. Dee W. Jones.



Jones says ADPH is sharing information with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, plus state and federal wildlife officials, to assess the origin of the rabies strain and to better understand its spread.



ADPH is reminding pet owners rabies vaccinations are required in Alabama. In addition to vaccination, area residents are advised to take the following precautions to avoid possible exposure:



- Do not allow pets to run loose. Confine them within a fenced-in area or with a leash.

- Do not leave uneaten pet food or scraps near your residence.

- Do not illegally feed or keep wildlife as pets.

- Do not go near wildlife or domestic animals acting in a strange or unusual manner.

- Caution children not to go near any stray or wild animal, regardless of its behavior.

- Advise children to tell an adult if they are bitten or scratched by any animal.

- A person who is bitten or scratched by an animal should wash the wounds immediately with mild soap and water, apply first aid, then seek medical attention or contact the county health department immediately.

For more information about rabies and prevention, you may contact ADPH online or by telephone.

[Byline: Jonathan Grass]

  • ペットを放し飼いにしないこと。フェンスで囲まれた所に置くか、紐で繋ぐ。
  • あなたの住まいのそばにペットフードの食べ残しや残飯を放置しない。
  • 法を破って野生動物に餌を与えたりペットとして飼ったりしない。
  • 奇妙な行動やいつもと違う様子を示す放浪動物や野生動物に近づかない。
  • その行動に関わらず放浪動物や野生動物の近くに子供たちが近づかないよう注意する。
  • どんな動物であれ咬まれたり引っ掻かれたりしたら大人に報告するよう子供達に教えておく。
  • 動物に咬まれたり引っ掻かれたりした人は傷を肌に優しい石けんと水で洗い、応急手当てをしたら、すぐに病院に行くか郡の保健所に連絡する。


(署名:Jonathan Grass)

Communicated by: ProMED


[ProMED map of Elmore County, Alabama, United States:




[4] USA: Massachusetts (Boston College) bat, human exposure

Date: Sat 19 Feb 2022

Source: BC Heights [edited]


[4] アメリカ合衆国マサチューセッツ州ボストン大学)コウモリ、人暴露




[SM] jolted awake in her dorm room in Walsh Hall to something repeatedly brushing against her shoulder. "I woke up to [SM] screaming her head off," said [CS], [SM]'s direct roommate and MCAS '24. "I thought it was like a terrible, terrible nightmare." Hearing the commotion, one of [SM]'s suitemates burst through the door and identified a flying creature: a bat.



[SM], MCAS '24, said she and her roommates left their suite on 10 Feb [2022] and waited in the hallway as [CS] got their RA [residents' associate or assistant], who then made calls to the Boston College Police Department (BCPD) and BC's Facilities Management. Around 20 minutes later, [SM] said facilities arrived and captured the bat.



"The guy was holding the bat in a towel, and you could see its fangs and everything," said [AB], one of the suitemates and MCAS '24. The roommates told facilities the bat should be tested for rabies, since [CS] was asleep in the room with the creature and it touched [SM] repeatedly, [CS] said. "I made it clear to them ... that I was touched by it, and that it's not safe to let it go because we would just have to get rabies shots then," [SM] said.



A Walsh RA said facilities agreed to place the bat in a bucket and later bring it to BCPD after the Walsh 8 residents and their parents -- who the students were speaking with on the phone during the incident -- expressed concern about getting the bat tested for rabies.



"Their parents wanted to make sure their kids were safe, and they really thought getting it checked [for rabies] was the best thing to do," she said. "The girls were very adamant about getting the bat tested, and I don't know what ended up happening, but I really hope they were able to."



The following morning, [CS] said she went to BCPD's office in Maloney Hall but was told it had no record of what happened and to call facilities. According to [CS], facilities told her to call back later. [SM] said another roommate called facilities later that day, which said it had released the bat.



"We were ... a little bit shocked they did that because we had been so adamant the night before that [they] could not let it go," [SM] said. Jack Dunn, associate vice president for university communications, said the students informed facilities they had not been bitten by the bat. "They were offered support from their RA and told to contact University Health Services, which instructed the students the following morning to get tested for rabies," he said in an email.



According to Philip Landrigan, director of BC's global public health program, if a bat is found in a room, you must presume it is infected with rabies. "Especially if it's a situation where people are asleep, or semi-asleep, you have to presume they have had contact with a bat and perhaps even a bite," Landrigan said.

B C州の世界公衆衛生プログラムの部長、フィリップランドリガンによると、もし部屋でコウモリを見つけたら、あなたは狂犬病に感染したと考えなくてはならないようである。「特にあなたが睡眠中だったり、うたた寝をしていたりしたら、あなたはコウモリと接触したか、多分咬まれたと考えなくてはなりません。」とランドリガン氏は話した。


Facilities' decision to release the bat aligned with its standard wildlife protocol, though BC is now changing this policy, according to Dunn. "Admittedly, Facilities has not had a lot of experience in dealing with bats inside of the residence hall rooms," he said. "Moving forward, Facilities will make it their policy to contact Animal Services in Boston or Newton should a similar incident occur in the future."

Facilities did not respond to a request for comment.



Landrigan said standard protocol for a potential rabies contact is to capture the bat and notify public health authorities. "It's standard protocol with a potential rabies contact to capture the bat and get it into the hands of public health authorities," he said. "It doesn't always happen for practical reasons, but that's the ideal protocol."



Any contact with a bat has to be taken seriously, as even the most minute scratch from a bat can potentially transmit rabies, Landrigan said. "This is a very serious situation," Landrigan said. "You have to presume in this circumstance that both of these students had contact with the bat, and if they have not immediately started ... postexposure prophylaxis [treatment], they must begin it ASAP; this is a real medical emergency."



[CS] and [SM] are now receiving rabies vaccines at St. Elizabeth's Medical Center for their potential exposure. According to the CDC, the treatment for potential rabies exposure -- or postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) -- includes a dose of human rabies immunoglobulin and rabies vaccine given on the day of exposure, and then additional vaccine doses on day 3, 7, and 14.

[CS] と [SM]は暴露の可能性があるため、現在聖エリザベス病院で狂犬病ワクチンを受けている。CDCによると、狂犬病暴露の可能性に対する治療、もしくは暴露後予防処置(PEP)はヒト狂犬病免疫グロブリン及び狂犬病ワクチンを暴露した日に受け、その後ワクチンを3日及び7日14日に受けることを含んでいる。



[CS] and [SM] will make 5 trips to the emergency room to receive their shots, which will be fully covered by insurance for [SM], but costs [CS] around USD 1250 in copays.

[CS] と [SM]は注射を受けに5回救急病院に通うことになるが、[SM]が全額保険で賄われるのに対し、[CS]は自己負担額が約1250ドルかかる。


Mark Pearlmutter, the chairman of emergency medicine at St. Elizabeth's Medical Center, said they will almost always treat someone for rabies if they woke up with a bat in their room -- as [SM] and [CS] did -- regardless of whether there is a bite or scratch mark.

聖エリザベス病院の救急医療センター長のマークパールマター氏は[SM] や [CS]のように部屋で起きた時コウモリが部屋にいた場合、咬み傷や引っ掻きの跡の有無に関わらず、ほとんど常に狂犬病の治療を行うと述べた。


"We generally will treat someone who comes in who says they woke up with a bat in their bedroom," Pearlmutter said. "And the proper way to handle this is to bring in a public health officer, an animal officer, that can actually find the bat, trap the bat, and then check it for rabies."



Ann Scales, the director of media relations for the Massachusetts Department of Public Health, said in an email if a person had contact with a bat in which a scratch or bite could not be ruled out, it is the state's public health recommendation that the bat be sent to the state public health lab to be tested for rabies.



Pearlmutter said though it is very rare, there have been a few instances in the country where transmission of rabies occurred after someone woke up with a bat in their room and saw no visible abrasion.



"They did not have any signs of being bit or scratched -- and that's not infrequent, by the way -- and there were one or 2 cases where folks did get rabies," he said. "So that shifted a lot of the treatment recommendations to lower the threshold in those instances and actually administer the immunoglobulin for rabies as well as the vaccine for rabies."



[CS] said it felt irresponsible for facilities to release the bat because it compromised her and [SM]'s safety. "Now [SM] and I have to deal with this," [CS] said. "We're right at risk for a fatal disease, and we've just spent all this money to go

through this, get 9 shots, so we don't have rabies."



Rabies is almost always fatal if left untreated, according to Pearlmutter."If you actually do get infected, the mortality rate is extremely high," he said. "And once it's taken its course, meaning once it's actually entered into your body, while there is some supportive treatment, it's a very lethal disease process."



[CS] said she wishes facilities or BCPD would have told her to call a regular exterminator if they were not going to keep the bat for testing.



"We are told when we have an animal or something in the dorm, we're supposed to call maintenance and BCPD, and I think ... if they're unable to handle keeping a bat overnight so we can get [it] tested for rabies, which is the number one thing you're supposed to do [in this situation] ... they shouldn't be doing that job," [CS] said.

BCPD did not respond to a request for comment.




According to Landrigan, the students would need to get treated regardless of whether the bat had rabies. "They still would have had to have been treated because it takes a few days to examine the bat and you don't dare to wait a few days before you initiate treatment, so it would not have changed the treatment the girls received," he said. [SM] wishes she was given clear and explicit answers during the situation.



"A bat landed on me multiple times, and there should be someone ... making me feel reassured and not in danger," she said. "And I feel like there's just a lack of that."

The Office of Residential Life did not respond to a request for comment.

「一匹のコウモリは何度も私の上に降りてきました。だから、誰かが…私のことを安心させ、危険じゃないと思わせるべきだったでしょう。でもそのことが抜け落ちていたと感じています。」と彼女は語った。Office of Residential Life社はこのコメントの要求に対して応じなかった。


[Bylines: Amy Palmer, Julia Kiersznowski, Sofia Laboy, and Beth Verghese]



Communicated by: ProMED


[This story is a little convoluted. It appears the responses were unclear between the various individuals. Bats can bite a sleeping person and the person may not know it. The bat should have been turned over to the appropriate rabies authorities for testing or to a local veterinarian if other authorities could not be reached. The veterinarian would know where to submit the bat for testing or further authorization.



Since the responses regarding what happened to the bat seemed to have crossed many channels and may have been confusing, the school may face some liability for the situation, especially having a student or their family pay out such a large sum for the necessary rabies post-exposure prophylaxis. This seems especially true as the entire situation seems to have been avoidable if the bat had been tested for rabies. - Mod.TG



ProMED map of Boston College, Boston, Massachusetts, United States:




[5] USA: Texas (Kerr County) fox, human exposure

Date: Sat 18 Feb 2022

Source: LMT Online [edited]


[5] アメリカ合衆国テキサス州(カー郡)キツネ、人暴露





After a rabid fox interacted with a person in Kerrville, Kerr County is making sure residents are on alert.



The fox came into contact with a person on 8 Feb [2022] on Main Street and has tested positive for rabies. It's Kerr County's 2nd official case of rabies in 2022.

Kerr County Environmental Health and Animal Services (KCAS) Director Reagan Givens said Kerr County Animal Control Services were informed about the fox on Main Street. They recovered the specimen and sent it to the zoological lab for testing the following day [9 Feb 2022]. On Friday, 11 Feb [2022], KCAS received a positive rabies test from the fox.




"Rabies is fatal, but preventable," Givens said. "In our country, rabies is mostly found in animals such as bats, raccoons, skunks, foxes, and coyotes, but it can also spread to people from cows, dogs, and others."



Rabies affects the central nervous system of its victims. If a person does not receive appropriate medical attention after a possible exposure, the virus diseases the brain and causes death, according to the county press release.



The person coming in contact was not bitten by the rabid fox, but KCAS advised the individual to seek medical attention from their physician. If a dog or cat has been exposed to a rabid animal, Texas law stipulates it must be humanely euthanized. [This is not the whole story on pets exposed to rabies. - Mod.TG]

接触した人は狂犬病のキツネに咬まれていなかったが、KCASは医師の診療を受けるよう助言した。犬や猫が狂犬病の動物に暴露した際には、テキサスの州法ではその動物を安楽殺するよう規定している。(モデレータTG これは狂犬病に暴露したペット全体の話ではない。)


"Most of the time, pet owners are not willing to do such a thing. So the law provides an alternative which must be strictly followed," Givens said.



If a dog or cat is currently vaccinated and is exposed to rabies, then they should be re-vaccinated immediately and restrained/confined for no fewer than 45 days. If the exposed pet has not been vaccinated, then it should be immediately and placed in strict isolation for 90 days, with booster rabies vaccinations in the 3rd and 8th weeks of isolation.



Since the fox was in the city and not on rural property, Givens reminded residents they can encounter the risk of rabies anywhere, so being prepared is key. If anyone notices an animal acting strangely, call Kerr County Animal Services.

[Byline: Gabriel Romero]


(ガブリエル ロミオ署名)


Communicated by: ProMED


[ProMED map of Kerr County, Texas, United States:




[6] USA: Virginia (Madison County) cats, human exposure

Date: Mon 21 Feb 2022

Source: Culpeper Star Exponent [edited]


[6] アメリカ合衆国バージニア州(マジソン郡)ネコ、人暴露


情報源:Culpeper Star Exponent(編集済み)



Madison County leaders are continuing to address a rabid cat issue.

Last month [January 2022], the Rappahannock-Rapidan Health District issued a rabies warning after a feral cat in the Shifflett's Corner area of Madison County tested positive for the disease.



A woman who had made contact with the cat was treated for rabies, and her other cats were required to quarantine for 4 months. The health district and local nonprofit MAD Cats built an enclosure to house the animals during their quarantine.

その猫と接触した女性は狂犬病の治療を受け、他の猫は4ヶ月間の隔離が求められた。保健局と地元の非営利団体MAD Catsはその猫たちを隔離期間中収容する施設を設けた。


However, state local health authorities directed county officials to consider all feral cats within the area as rabies positive and said they should be trapped and euthanized.



The Madison County Supervisors, as a result, recently adopted an ordinance to that effect. The ordinance authorizes the county's animal control office to trap and euthanize cats within the Shifflett's Corner area. The ordinance will remain in effect until 2 March [2022] but may be renewed if the issue persists.



County attorney Sean Gregg explained rabies is among the most fatal conditions, and there was no evidence the cat in question had been vaccinated. He said the issue represents a fairly substantial public health crisis, and the county has no other choice but to trap and euthanize the cats. So far, 20-30 cats have been captured and euthanized.



"This is what happens when people don't spay and neuter their cats," Gregg said. County administrator Jonathon Weakley said he understands the feelings around euthanizing the animals, but the county's number one job is public health and safety. Officials from the local health department said they unanimously support the ordinance.

[Byline: Gracie Hart Brooks]




Communicated by: ProMED


[Many people let their cats outdoors to sun themselves, hunt, or scratch the trees instead of the carpet before coming back into a house. Many of these same people do not have collars on their cats, as cats can get them hung on fences, trees, etc., causing death to the animal, or the collar may release if it is a break-away collar, or it may be pulled off if it is loose enough.



Consequently, the county may not be doing due diligence to ensure these cats are truly feral. A frightened cat may seem like a feral cat. I wonder if the county notified any surrounding/neighboring areas before euthanizing the animals. While rabies is a significant health risk, so is inappropriately euthanizing a vaccinated, owned animal without consent. - Mod.TG




ProMED map of Madison County, Virginia, United States:



[Hopefully those areas experiencing an increase in rabies being detected in foxes or any other animal will ensure their working dogs and other pets are fully up to date on their rabies vaccine as a method of helping save the pets' lives.



Regardless of where you live, protecting your pets from rabies is important, as it also helps protect you and your neighbors. It is also important to protect your pets.



Anytime you encounter an animal that is previously unknown to you, caution should be excised. Yes, it may be a local animal who has gotten out of a car and is disoriented and afraid, or it could be a feral or wild animal affected by rabies.


There are 2 types of rabies recognized through the way they are displayed by the animal. The 1st form is called the furious form. It is aptly named, as the animal appears vicious, frequently snapping its jaws, and it may be drooling or foaming from the mouth. The 2nd form is known as the dumb form, as the animal appears very timid and shy.



For example, it may be unusual to see a cornered fox or coyote acting shy and reserved, or almost friendly. These animals may or may not necessarily be drooling or slobbering. If you do not know the animal, be cautious. Cats can be especially afraid or friendly when they are seeking help. So it seems more difficult with cats instead of the dog varieties.



"Rabies Vaccine



"A regimen of 4 1-mL doses of HDCV or PCEC vaccines should be administered intramuscularly to previously unvaccinated persons.

"The 1st dose of the 4-dose course should be administered as soon as possible after exposure.

  • HDCVやPCECワクチン1mlを4回接種する方法は、これまでワクチンを接種したことのない人に対して筋肉内投与されるべきである。
  • 4回の投与のうち最初の投与は暴露後できるだけ早期に投与すべきである。


"Additional doses should be administered on days 3, 7, and 14 after the 1st vaccination. For adults, the vaccination should always be administered intramuscularly in the deltoid area (arm). For children, the anterolateral aspect of the thigh is also acceptable. The gluteal area should never be used for rabies vaccine injections because observations suggest administration in this area results in lower neutralizing antibody titers.

  • 追加投与は最初のワクチンの後、3日、7日、14日目に投与されるべきである。成人はワクチン接種は常に三角筋(腕)の筋肉内に投与する。小児は大腿部の前外側部も許容される。しかし、中和抗体価が上がらないことが示唆されているため、臀部には決して投与しない。


"Postexposure Prophylaxis for Non-immunized Individuals

"Treatment: Wound cleansing: All postexposure prophylaxis should begin with immediate thorough cleansing of all wounds with soap and water. If available, a virucidal agent such as povidine-iodine solution should be used to irrigate the wounds


  • 治療:傷の清浄:すべての暴露後予防処置は、直ちに石鹸と水を使用して全ての傷を徹底的に洗浄しなくてはならない。もし可能なら、ポビドンヨード溶液のような殺ウイルス性の薬剤で創面を灌注洗浄するべきである。


"RIG [rabies immunoglobulin]: If possible, the full dose should be infiltrated around any wound(s), and any remaining volume should be administered IM [intramuscular] at an anatomical site distant from vaccine administration. Also, RIG should not be administered in the same syringe as vaccine. Because RIG might partially suppress active production of antibody, no more than the recommended dose should be given.

  • RIG(狂犬病免疫グロブリン):可能なら、どんな創面にも全量を浸透させるべきであるが、残量はワクチン投与部位から解剖学的距離をとってIM(筋肉内)に投与すべきである。また、RIGはワクチンと同じ注射器を使用して投与するべきではない。RIGは能動的な抗体産生を一部抑制する可能性があるので、推奨される量を超えて使用しないこと。


"Vaccine: HDCV [human diploid cell vaccine against rabies] or PCECV [a type of vaccine against rabies, purified chick embryo cell vaccine] 1.0 mL, IM [deltoid area], one each on days 0, 3, 7, and 14. (A 5th dose on day 28 may be recommended for immunocompromised persons.)"

  • ワクチン:HDCV[狂犬病に対するヒト2倍体細胞ワクチン]もしくはPCECV [レワクチンのタイプで、精製ニワトリ胚細胞ワクチン]はIM(三角筋部)にて0、3、7日目にそれぞれ1ml投与する。(5回目は28日目に免疫不全者に対して行う。)


"If exposed to rabies, previously vaccinated persons should receive 2 IM doses (1.0 mL each) of vaccine, one immediately and one 3 days later. Previously vaccinated persons are those who have received one of the recommended preexposure or postexposure regimens of HDCV, RVA, or PCECV, or those who received another vaccine and had a documented rabies antibody titer. RIG is unnecessary and should not be administered to these persons because an anamnestic response will follow the administration of a booster regardless of the pre-booster antibody titer."


  • 過去にワクチン接種を受けた人が狂犬病に暴露した場合には、直ちに1回目を、そして3日後に2回目のワクチンを(それぞれ1mlずつ)投与するべきである。過去にワクチンを受けた人とは、推奨される暴露前ワクチンを受けたか、HDCVもしくはRVA、PCECV、あるいは他のワクチン接種を済ませた人、あるいは狂犬病の抗体価の証明書類を持っている人である。RIGはこれらの人たちには不要であり投与するべきではない。追加投与前の抗体価に関わらず、追加投与に続いて二次応答反応が起きるからである。


Also extracted from: CDC




"Wound Care

Regardless of the risk for rabies, bite wounds can cause serious injury such as nerve or tendon laceration and infection. Your doctor will determine the best way to care for your wound and will also consider how to treat the wound for the best possible cosmetic results.




"For many types of bite wounds, immediate gentle irrigation with water or a dilute water povidone-iodine solution has been shown to markedly decrease the risk of bacterial infection.

  • 多種の咬傷に対して、水もしくはポピドンヨード水溶液での速やかで丁寧な灌注洗浄は細菌感染のリスクを明らかに減少させることを示す。


"Wound cleansing is especially important in rabies prevention since, in animal studies, thorough wound cleansing alone without other postexposure prophylaxis has been shown to markedly reduce the likelihood of rabies.

  • 動物における研究では他の暴露後発症予防処置を行わず、徹底的な傷の洗浄のみで狂犬病発症の可能性を明らかに減少させることが示されているので、傷の洗浄は狂犬病予防においては特に重要である。


"You should receive a tetanus shot if you have not been immunized in 10 years. Decisions regarding the use of antibiotics, and primary wound closure should be decided together with your doctor."


  • 破傷風の予防注射は10年以内に受けていないのなら受けるべきである。抗生物質の使用や一次的な皮膚縫合については主治医と相談して決めるべきである。


"Rabies Post-exposure Prophylaxis (PEP)


"What medical care will I receive if I may have been exposed to rabies?

  • 狂犬病に暴露した可能性があるときにはどんな治療を受けるのだろうか?


"Postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) consists of a dose of human rabies immune globulin (HRIG) and rabies vaccine given on the day of the rabies exposure, and then a dose of vaccine given again on days 3, 7, and 14. For people who have never been vaccinated against rabies previously, postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) should always include administration of both HRIG and rabies vaccine. The combination of HRIG and vaccine is recommended for both bite and non-bite exposures, regardless of the interval between exposure and initiation of treatment.

  • 暴露後発症予防処置(PEP)はヒト狂犬病免疫グロブリン(HRIG)及び狂犬病ワクチンを狂犬病に暴露した日に投与し、その後ワクチンを3日目及び7日目14日目に投与する。過去ワクチン未接種の人には暴露後発症予防処置(PEP)は常にHRIGと狂犬病ワクチンの両方の投与が含まれる。HRIGとワクチンの併用は暴露と治療開始の間隔に関わらず、咬傷と非咬傷暴露の両方に推奨される。


"People who have been previously vaccinated or are receiving preexposure vaccination for rabies should receive only vaccine.

  • 過去にワクチン接種を受けていたか、狂犬病暴露前ワクチン接種の場合にはワクチンのみを接種する。


"Adverse reactions to rabies vaccine and immune globulin are not common. Newer vaccines in use today cause fewer adverse reactions than previously available vaccines. Mild, local reactions to the rabies vaccine, such as pain, redness, swelling, or itching at the injection site, have been reported. Rarely, symptoms such as headache, nausea, abdominal pain, muscle aches, and dizziness have been reported. Local pain and low-grade fever may follow injection of rabies immune globulin.

  • 狂犬病ワクチンと免疫グロブリンの副反応は一般には見られない。過去使用されていたワクチンに比べ、今日使用されている新しいワクチンの副反応は少なくなっている。狂犬病ワクチンに対する弱い局所の反応として、注射部位の疼痛、発赤、腫脹、痒感などが報告されている。稀に頭痛や吐き気、腹痛、筋肉痛、目眩のような徴候が報告されている。狂犬病免疫グロブリンの注射では局所痛や微熱が起きることがある。


"The vaccine should be given at recommended intervals for best results. Talk to your doctor or state or local public health officials if you will not be able to have your shots at the recommended interval. Rabies prevention is a serious matter and changes should not be made in the schedule of doses. Patient assistance programs that provide medications to uninsured or underinsured patients are available for rabies vaccine and immune globulin.

  • ワクチンは良い結果のために勧奨される間隔で行われるべきである。もし勧奨される間隔で行えない場合には主治医か地元の保健所に相談しなさい。狂犬病予防は深刻な事柄であり、投与のスケジュールを変更するべきではない。保険未加入や保険不足の患者を補助するプログラムで狂犬病ワクチンや免疫グロブリンの投与が可能である。


"People cannot transmit rabies to other people unless they themselves are sick with rabies. PEP will protect you from developing rabies, and therefore you cannot expose other people to rabies. You can continue to participate in your normal activities." (https://www.cdc.gov/rabies/medical_care/index.html)




Both of these websites are from the Centers for Disease Control, but one specifies the PEP should began as soon as possible, and one indicates more of an immediate nature. Medical attention to any bite is the 1st step. - Mod.TG]



[See Also:

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Rabies (36): Americas (USA) animal, human


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Rabies (30): Americas (USA) raccoon, cat, dog, fox, human exp


Rabies (20): Americas (USA) imported dog


Rabies (11): Americas (USA) bat, human exp


Rabies (09): Americas (Canada, USA) wild and domestic animals,

exposure http://promedmail.org/post/20210504.8342817

Rabies (03): Americas (USA) raccoon, dog, bobcat, fox, human exp


Rabies (02): Americas (USA, Canada) otter, fox, human exp


Rabies (01): Americas (USA) raccoon, dog, cat, human exp




Rabies (33): Americas (USA) cow, skunk, cat, raccoon, human exp


Rabies (30): Americas (USA) coyote, bat, imported dog ex Egypt, human

exp http://promedmail.org/post/20201108.7925072

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Rabies (28): Americas (USA) animal, human exp


Rabies (27): Americas (USA) animal, human exp


Rabies (26): Americas (USA) bat, human exp


Rabies (25): Americas (USA) animal, human exp


Rabies (23): Americas (USA) bat


Rabies (10): Americas (USA) raccoon, dog, bull, human exp


Rabies (08): Americas (USA, Canada) cat, dog, fox, skunk, human exp


Rabies (06): Americas (USA) cat, fox, cow, human exp


Rabies (03): Americas (USA) cat, fox, otter, coyote, human exposure


Rabies (02): Americas (USA) raccoon, cat, human, dog exp




Rabies (57): Americas (USA) raccoon, cat, human exp


Rabies (53): Americas (USA) fox, human exp


Rabies (50): Americas (USA) cat, dog, human exposure


Rabies (40): Americas (USA) bat, human exp


Rabies (30): Americas, USA (FL, NC) cat, fox, dog, human exposure


Rabies (28): Americas, USA, cattle, imported dogs, corr.