In this update:

[1] Israel: dog-mediated, control, discussion

[1] イスラエル: イヌ-媒介, 管理, 議論

[2] Malaysia (Sibu, Sarawak province): dog, suspected, human exposure

[2] マレーシア(Sibu, Sarawak 郡):イヌ、疑い、ヒトの暴露

[3] Turkey (Bahçelievler, Mardin province): human, dog-mediated,


[3] トルコ (Bahçelievler, Mardin 郡):ヒト、イヌ-媒介、管理



[1] Israel, dog-mediated, control, discussion

Date: Mon, 21 Feb 2022

Source: Haaretz daily [in Hebrew, trans., edited; subscription required]



Experts in public health, nature conservation, and veterinary medicine warn of the implications of the bill promoted these days in the coalition for the 'Release of stray dogs after receiving a rabies vaccination, spaying or neutering.'



According to the sources, returning the dogs to open areas without supervision will lead to the risk of an outbreak of disease, increasing the risk of attacks to humans and harming wildlife. On the other hand, animal organizations and lawmakers argue that this is a step that will help reduce the population of stray dogs, whose number is estimated in the tens of thousands.



The experts said this ahead of a discussion to be held in the Knesset's Education and Sports Committee [KESC] on [Wed 23 Feb 2022] in the bill submitted by MKs Jasmine Sachs Friedman ('Yesh Atid') and Sharan Hashakel ('Tikva Hadasha'), to be approved as a temporary order for 2 years. According to the order, a pilot project is initially to be held, during which unowned, stray-feral dogs will be collected but, in difference with the prevailing legislation, they will be released after being vaccinated, or sterilized/neutered. The performance will be within the responsibility of an animal protection organization and in areas belonging to a municipal authority that had given consent to the procedure. In case it turns out that the experimental [2-year] project does reduce the stray dog population, it will become possible to extend its duration for another 3 years.

専門家によれば、これに先立ちイスラエル議会文教委員会(Education and Sports Committee)[KESC]において国会議員のJasmine Sachs Friedman (未来がある党) 及びSharan Hashakel (新しい希望党)により提案・議論された条文に含まれ、2年間の時限立法が成立した。



Minister of Agriculture Oded Forer ('Yisrael Beiteinu') supports the law, as do animal rights organizations. On the other hand, professionals of the State veterinary services recommended addressing the stray dog issue by regulating, nationally, the breeding and maintenance of dogs along with the establishment of additional kennels and subsidization of spaying and neutering activities of dogs within needy municipalities.

Oded Forer農務大臣(イスラエル我が家党)は、動物の権利擁護団体と同様に、法案を支持している。一方、州獣医療部門の専門家達は、放浪犬の問題には、犬の繁殖や飼育を全国的に制限するとともに、収容施設を増設し、財政的にひっ迫している自治体には去勢・避妊手術の補助金を給付することにより対処することを推奨した。


According to the Ministry of Health, the risk of serious injury from a stray dog bite is twice larger than an owned dog bite. This, on top of spreading diseases such as rabies. Another concern is that the stray dogs prey on wildlife and protected animals such as gazelles and Persian fallow deer.



The "Government Forum for One Health", which advises the government on health issues, also warned against the emerging legislation. The head of the public health services at the Ministry of Health, Dr Sharon Elroi Price, a member of said forum, along with other experts from the Ministries of Agriculture and Environmental Protection, warned that returned, unattended stray dogs will endanger the public and that their vaccination will not render them with adequate, durable protection from rabies.

政府に健康に関する課題について助言を行う機関である、“ワンヘルスのための政府フォーラム”も、新規立法に対して警告している。保健省の公衆衛生部門長であり上述のフォーラムメンバーである、Dr Sharon Elroi Priceは、農務省及び環境保護省の専門家達とともに、解放され、放置された放浪犬は、公衆に対する脅威となるばかりではなく、予防接種が適切で長期的な効果を付与できないだろうと警鐘を鳴らしている。


Most professional bodies specializing in animal population control are not convinced that available studies confirmed the claim that the method is effective in reducing the population of stray dogs. Forum members said that similar pilots conducted around the world have indeed not resulted in a reduction. "Captured adoptable dogs may be ready for adoption after being sterilized/neutered and the full vaccination against rabies administered", the forum members noted. "Non-adoptable dogs have to go through long training and domestication procedures or alternatively, unfortunately being euthanised




Another body that has expressed opposition to the move is the 'Israeli Association of Public Health Physicians'. According to a member of the organization, Prof. Eyal Clement from the Hebrew University School of Veterinary Medicine, to attain success, the pilot should neuter between 70% and 80% of the stray dogs -- a target estimated as not implementable. According to him and additional experts, the move may even lead to the migration of stray dogs from other areas to the pilot area -- which will actually cause an increase in its population.

この運動に反対する他の団体としては、イスラエル公衆衛生医師会(Israeli Association of Public Health Physicians)がある。組織のメンバーである、ヘブライ大学獣医学部(Hebrew University School of Veterinary Medicine)のEyal Clement教授によれば、試行が成功するためには、放浪犬の70-80%の避妊・去勢をすべきであり、この目標推計は実行可能な数値ではない。彼を含めた専門家によれば、この試行は、対象外から対象地域への放浪犬の移動をも誘発し、その結果、対象地域の放浪犬数が増加する要因となるだろう。


In the Ministry of Environmental Protection, the views are divided.

Gali Davidson, head of the Department of Animal Protection, supports the pilot, in difference with the view of the chief scientist in the Ministry, Prof Noga Kronfeld-Schur. During the 1st KESC discussion held 3 weeks ago, Davidson said that the proposed temporary provisions deserve to be seen as "another tool" for "addressing the problem, testing, and correcting it through a test program. Some countries are already doing so with nice results."

環境保護省では、見解が分かれている。Gali Davidson動物保護局長は、省の主任科学者、Noga Kronfeld-Schur教授の見解と異なり、この試行を支持している。3週間まえに行われた第1回KESCでの討議中に、Davidsonは、提案された時限法案は、「試行期間を通じ、問題を議論し、試行し、是正」するための「別の選択肢」と見做す価値がある。「幾つかの国では、既に行われ、良い結果を得ている」と述べた。


Yael Arkin, CEO of "Let the Animals Live", also expressed her support for the pilot and said: "We are already trying for years to promote initiatives to increase assistance and budget for sterilization and neutering and no one supports them. The Ministry of Agriculture and the Nature and Parks Authority kill a large number of dogs every year, even in areas where there is no fear of rabies spread, and we see that the problem is not solved. It is time to stop killing again and again. Contrary to many people's beliefs, this is a successful initiative in the world."

「Let the Animals Live(動物愛護団体)」のCEO、Yeal Arkinは、試行への支持を表明し、「私たちは、長年、この新提案を推進するために、去勢・避妊への援助及び予算を増加させる取組をしたが、誰も支持しなかった。農務省及び自然公園当局は、毎年、狂犬病蔓延のおそれのない地域でさえ、多くのイヌを殺すが、問題は解決していない。繰り返し殺すことは止める時だ。多くの人々が信じていることに反し、この取組は世界で成功する新提案である。」と述べた。


[Byline: Zafrir Rinat]



Communicated by:



[Rabies in Israel, initially of the 'urban' type (predominantly dog-mediated in urban and rural areas) has become 'sylvatic' (wild-life mediated) since the introduction, during the 2nd half of the last century, of compulsory annual certification and vaccination of dogs and requiring leashing in public sites, which led to the absence of rabies in Israel's cities for decades.



The number of rabies outbreaks (villages) and cases (animals), 1991-2020, are presented graphically on page 33 of the 2020 annual report of the VSAH (Veterinary Services & Animal Health) at https://www.gov.il/BlobFolder/reports/doch-shnati-vet-2020/he/vet_doch-shnati-vet-2020.pdf.

1991年から2020年までの狂犬病の流行発生(村)及び症例(動物)数が、VSAH(Veterinary Services and Animal Health)HPにある、2020年度年次報告書の33頁に図示されている。


During 2004-2007, the biological and molecular characterization of the rabies isolates showed that free-roaming, stray dogs re-emerged as a significant animal reservoir in Northern Israel. The virus isolates from foxes and dogs differed in their molecular characterization, suggesting 2 distinct separate lineages. The transition from fox-mediated rabies to dog-mediated rabies became, obviously, of great concern to public health. The last human rabies case was reported in 2003. Post exposure treatments are abundant.



During the past 15 years, jackals gradually replaced foxes as the sylvatic reservoir of the virus. However, in recent years dog rabies increased, becoming the dominant presentation in 2021, concentrated mainly in regions bordering Lebanon and Syria.



Data of (lab-confirmed) events during the last 5 years:

Year / all animals / dog / jackal

2017 / 74 / 10 / 47

2018 / 60 / 6 / 45

2019 / 17 / 10 / 7

2020 / 47 / 15 / 24

2021/ 40 / 21 / 10


(Besides jackals and dogs, few cases were recorded in cats, badgers, a wolf, cattle, and sheep. Not a single fox).



In regard to the alleged success of the proposed Dog Population Management (DPM) policy, incorporating the collection, sterilization, vaccination (which requires a booster!), and release of free-roaming dogs, subscribers are encouraged to visit a paper, authored by investigators from prominent research centers in USA, UK, and South Africa, reviewing available reports of DPM attempts, globally (see reference below).

成功したと主張されている、提案されたイヌの頭数管理(Dog Population Managemnt : DPM)政策では、放浪犬を捕獲、不妊化、予防接種(ブースター接種が必要とされる!)、そして解放する。USA、UK,そして南アフリカの著明な研究施設の研究者が発表している、世界中でDPMを試みた報告について評価している論文にアクセスすべきである(下の、参考文献を見ること)。


Among their findings:

  1. "In practice, there is very limited evidence of DPM tools achieving reductions in the size or turnover of dog populations in canine rabies-endemic areas. Different DPM tools are frequently used together and combined with rabies vaccinations, but full impact assessments of DPM programs are not usually available."
  2. "Community engagement focused on promoting responsible dog ownership and better veterinary care could improve the health of individual animals and dog vaccination coverage, thus reducing rabies transmission."
  3. "It is important to understand local dog populations and community attitudes toward them in order to determine whether and how DPM might contribute to rabies control and which DPM tools would be most successful."
  4. "Surgical sterilization is the most frequently documented tool and has successfully reduced dog population size and turnover in a few low-income settings. However, DPM programs are mostly conducted in urban settings."







Notably, the proposed pilot in Israel is not planned to be applied in an urban setting. Israel's owned dog population (2020 data) exceeds 500 000 pets, of which about 460 000 vaccinated. The recording of cases in (apparently, unvaccinated) dogs, despite the herd immunity, may reflect the rate of exposure hazard, in the regional context.






Taylor LH, Wallace RM, Balaram D, et al. The role of dog population management in rabies elimination -- A review of current approaches and future opportunities. Front. Vet. Sci. 2017; 4:109;


- Mod.AS


ProMED map of Israel:




[2] Malaysia (Sibu, Sarawak province): dog, suspected, human exposure

[2] マレーシア(Sibu, Sarawak 郡):イヌ、疑い、ヒトの暴露


Date: Sat 19 Feb 2022 8:51 pm MST

Source: The Borneo Post [edited]




There is a possibility that the dog that attacked the 3 people at Sungai Maaw ferry point in Sungai Bidut [in Sibu, Sarawak] on Friday [18 Feb 2022], might have been infected with rabies. [* See below for details of the event, published by 'Borneo post'].

[22年2月18日]金曜日、[Sarawak郡、Sibuの]Sungai BidutにあるSungai Maawフェリー乗り場で、3人を襲ったイヌが、狂犬病に感染していた可能性がある(この事件の詳細は以下の“ボルネオ・ポスト”の記事を参照)。


In stating this, however, the Sibu Health Office pointed out that the matter would still require a confirmation from the Department of Veterinary Services. "From the way the dog had behaved, it's possible that it's a rabid dog, but this needs to be confirmed by the Department of Veterinary Services," it said in a statement today [19 Feb 2022].

しかし、この声明の中で、Sibu保健当局者は、この問題は、現在も獣医局(the Department of veterinary Services)からの確認を必要としていると指摘した。「イヌの行動からは、狂犬病に罹患している可能性はあるが、獣医局による確認が必要である。」と、今日[22年2月19日]の声明の中で表明している。



Asked if the victims were hospitalized, the Health Office said usually for a dog-bite case, there would be no need for hospitalization. "(They would be) treated as outpatients, but they would be given appointments to come for vaccination," it said.



Asked if the dog was still with its owner, the office said: "In cases like this, the authorities would take urgent action to catch the dog and the (Veterinary Services) Department would test if it's rabies-infected."



Additionally, it stressed that the public must be aware of the importance of getting their pets vaccinated against rabies and also neutering them.



"Don't adopt strays as pets, unless (they have) been given rabies vaccination," it advised.



Meanwhile, the Department of Veterinary Services Sarawak (DVSS) director Dr Adrian Susin Ambud said should the result confirm that the dog was rabies-infected, the animal would die within 10 days.

一方、Sarawak州獣医局(DVSS)のAdrian Susin Ambud局長は、狂犬病罹患が確認されたイヌは、10日以内には死亡するだろうと述べた。


"The owner needs to surrender the dog to the DVSS for testing," called Dr Adrian.

「飼育者は、検査のために、DVSSにイヌを引き渡す必要がある」と、Dr Adrina



He also advised members of the public to contact the nearest veterinary office to obtain further information about anti-rabies vaccination.



With regard to making reports about stray dogs, one could utilize the Sarawak Rabies App, downloadable via Google Play Store for Android users, and App Store for Apple users.

Google Play StoreやApp Storeで入手出来るSarawak Rabies Appで、放浪犬の情報を入手出来る。


Early Friday [18 Feb 2022], a dog attacked 3 people, one of whom was its owner, at Sungai Maaw ferry point in Sungai Bidut. The incident said to have occurred between 7 am and 8.30 am, left the dog's owner and 2 passers-by -- a teenager and a man, in his 50s -- with bites. The man said he would go to the area occasionally and each time, he would see a number of dogs roaming around.

[22年2月18日]金曜日の早朝、Sungai BidutのSungai Maawフェリー乗り場で3名が犬に攻撃され、その内2名はその犬の飼育者だった。事件は、午前7時から8時半の間に起きたとされ、当該イヌの飼育者と、乗客の10代の若者及び50代の男性に咬み傷が残されていた。50代の男性は、度々近辺を訪れており、その度に複数のイヌがうろついているのを見たと述べた。


"This (Friday) morning [18 Feb 2022], one of the dogs suddenly went wild and started biting people," he said. It was reported that the teenager sustained bite wounds on her fingers, while the woman was bitten on the leg and a finger. All 3 had gone to Sibu Hospital for treatment, including getting the rabies vaccine.



[Byline: Peter Boon]



Communicated by



[For the location of the Sungai Maaw ferry point (Sarawat Bidut) see map at https://tinyurl.com/mwcfk2ha. It is located in Sarawak, Malaysia's largest state (among 13), on the northwest of Borneo Island, which is shared by Indonesia's Kalimantan. Sarawak's area is almost equal to that of Peninsular Malaysia, which is situated some 900 km (615 mi) to its west. Rabies reemerged in Sarawak in 2015, after being eradicated there 16 years earlier, and has been circulating since in the dog population. Until May 2021, 33 human deaths have been reported.

Sungai Maawフェリー乗り場(Sarawat Bidut)の位置は、https://tinyurl.com/mwcfk2ha の地図を確認すること。フェリー乗り場は、インドネシアカリマンタン島と共有するボルネオ島の北西に位置し、マレーシア13州で最大の州であるSarawakにある。Sarawakは、半島マレーシアとほぼ同じ広さがあり、その西側約900km(651マイル)に位置する。Sarawakでは、16年に亘り狂犬病清浄であったが、2015年に再興し、イヌの群れの中で循環している。2021年5月までに、33名の死亡が報告されている。


It may be assumed that the post-exposure treatment of the 3 bitten persons would/has been applied without delay, even if rabies of the biting dog has not yet been lab-confirmed. The lab test addresses samples, obtained if/when the dog dies, preferably brain stem, Ammon's horn, thalamus, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and medulla oblongata. For rabies diagnostic methods, see chapter 3.01.17 of OIE's Terrestrial Manual, at






- Mod.AS


ProMED map of Malaysia:




[3] Turkey (Bahçelievler, Mardin province): dog, human exposure, control

[3] トルコ (Bahçelievler, Mardin 郡):ヒト、イヌ-媒介、管理


Date: Sat 19 Feb 2022

Source: Haber7.com [Turkish, machine- translated, edited]



A rabies incident took place on 15 Feb 2022 in the Bahçelievler Neighborhood, Derik District, in Mardin province. [AÇ] (5), [AOK] (10), [RY] (11), [MY] (14), [KÃ-] (21), [MÃ-] (45), and [EE] (35), who were attacked by a stray dog on the way back from school, were injured on various body parts. With the intervention of the locals, the dog got away, and medical teams were sent to the scene. After the 1st interventions, the wounded, who were taken to the hospitals in Derik, Kızıltepe, and Mardin, were vaccinated against rabies and were discharged after their treatment.

狂犬病に関する事件が、22年2月15日にMardin県Derik郡のBahçelievler近郊で起きた。[AÇ] (5), [AOK] (10), [RY] (11), [MY] (14), [KÃ-] (21), [MÃ-] (45), 及び [EE] (35)が、学校の帰り道に放浪犬に襲われ、体の様々な部位に受傷した。地域住民が介入し、そのイヌは逃亡し、そして医療チームが現場に派遣された。応急処置をされた後、Derik、Kızıltepe、Mardinの病院に搬送され、狂犬病予防接種を受け、治療後に退院した。


The sample of the captured dog, taken at the Mardin Metropolitan Municipality Animal Shelter, was found rabies positive in the examinations made at the Elazig Veterinary Control Institute.

Thereupon, with the decision of the District Animal Health Police Commission, the entrance and exit of all kinds of animals, animal substances, and products to the neighborhood were prohibited for a period of 6 months [see comment]. In addition, the commission also stated that no animals will be slaughtered without the permission of the veterinarian, that the surrounding provinces and districts are in quarantine due to rabies in the neighborhood, that everyone who has contact with a rabid dog is vaccinated, that the 'rabies risk zone' sign is posted at the entrance and exit of the neighborhood, and that the animals are released by making sound warnings by the municipality. It was decided to declare that it was forbidden to roam.




One of the residents of the neighborhood stated that they learned today [19 Feb 2022] that the dog had rabies and said, "I go to high school; I can't go to school because of the fear of dogs. We want all dogs to be collected," he said.




Communicated by:

Mahmoud Orabi

ahstandards@gmail.com" target="_blank">ahstandards@gmail.com


[ProMED thanks Mahmoud Orabi for his submission.


Bahçelievler is a large middle class residential suburb of Istanbul, on the European side of the city. Turkey is regarded to be the only country in Europe where urban dog-mediated rabies persists. Control measures in recent decades have reduced the burden of rabies to relatively low levels but foci of the disease persist, particularly in urban areas.



The measures undertaken in response to the described incident, including the ban on the introduction of animal products, seem excessive. Rabies is transmitted by direct, close animal-to animal as well as animal-to-human contacts, mostly bites. Maximal vaccination coverage and strict control of animal movements are the measures of choice. - Mod.AS



ProMED map of Turkey:



[See Also:



Rabies (35): Eurasia, Germany (HB) ex Turkey, dog, OIE




Rabies (32): Asia (Malaysia, Bhutan) human, dog


Rabies (19): Asia (Malaysia, Indonesia, Japan ex Philippines) animal,

human http://promedmail.org/post/20200628.7517416

Rabies (16): Asia (Israel) cattle, regional aspect, control




Rabies (03): Asia (Israel) wild, domestic, OIE


Rabies (31): Africa (Kenya), Asia (Israel, Malaysia, Viet Nam) human,

animal http://promedmail.org/post/20180611.5850724

Rabies (22): Asia (Malaysia, Israel), Europe (UK), WHO (global) human,

animal http://promedmail.org/post/20180505.5786343

Rabies (03): Asia (Israel) wild, domestic, OIE




Rabies (40): Asia (Thailand, Malaysia) human, animal


Rabies (37): Asia (Malaysia) human, animal, spread, control


Rabies (31): Asia (Malaysia) canine, feline, OIE


Rabies (30): Asia (Malaysia)


Rabies (29): Asia (Philippines, Malaysia-Borneo) human, animal




Rabies, animal, human (11): Turkey, India, Israel


and other items in the archives]