狂犬病(18):南北アメリカ(アメリカ) コウモリ、ネコ、犬によるヒトの暴露



A ProMED-mail post <http://www.promedmail.org>
ProMED-mail is a program of the International Society for Infectious Diseases <http://www.isid.org>

In this update:
[1] South Carolina - bat, human exposure

サウスカロライナ州- コウモリ、ヒト暴露
[2] Georgia - cat, dog, human exposure

ジョージア州 – ネコ、犬、ヒト暴露
[3] Massachusetts - fox, human exposure

マサチューセッツ州 – キツネ、ヒト暴露
[4] Pennsylvania - fox, human exposure

ペンシルバニア州 – キツネ、ヒト暴露
[5] New York - fox, human exposure

ニューヨーク州 – キツネ、ヒト暴露

[1] South Carolina - bat, human exposure

サウスカロライナ州- コウモリ、ヒト暴露
Date: 16 Jun 2020
Source: AJC [edited]

Health officials in South Carolina say one person was exposed to a bat with rabies while administering care to it. [I am not quite sure what kind of care the person was administering, or if the bat was injured. If this was wildlife rehabilitator, then the person should have known about potential rabies and taken extra precautions. - Mod.TG]

サウスカロライナ州衛生当局に依れば、狂犬病のコウモリをケアしていた1人が暴露された。[ その人がどのようなケアをしていたのか、コウモリが怪我をしていたのかは不明である。 仮に野生動物のリハビリ担当者であれば、その人は狂犬病の可能性を知っているべきであり、特別な予防策を講じているべきだった。- Mod.TG]

The South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control said the bat was found in Warrenville, South Carolina, on 11 Jun 2020. Officials confirmed the bat had rabies on 12 Jun 2020, a day after the bat was submitted to the department for testing.

"Rabid bats have been known to transmit the rabies virus to humans and pets," said David Vaughan, director of DHEC's Onsite Wastewater, Rabies Prevention, and Enforcement Division. "People don't always realize they've been bitten since bat teeth are tiny, and bites are easy to overlook."
狂犬病のコウモリは狂犬病ウイルスを人間やペットに感染させることが知られている。」と下水管理・狂犬病予防執行部門責任者であるDavid Vaughanは述べた。

Department officials said bats with rabies are often seen in the daytime without the ability to fly and are in unusual places, such asa front lawn or a person's home, where they are not normally seen.

Officials also said any bat having been in contact with people, pets or livestock should be trapped in a sealed container. They should not be touched.
[Byline: Kelcie Willis, The Atlanta Journal-Constitution]

Communicated by: ProMED-mail <promed@promedmail.org>

[2] Georgia - cat, dog, human exposure

ジョージア州 – ネコ、犬、ヒト暴露
Date: 27 Jun 2020
Source: AJC [edited]

A stray cat having bitten and scratched 3 people and a family dog in Forsyth County has tested positive for rabies, authorities said.
The incident happened in the Briarwood Trail/Grove Park Lane area of Forsyth, according to a District 2 Public Health announcement dated 18 Jun 2020. "Problems of this nature often occur when people attempt to feed or rescue stray domesticated dogs and cats," the announcement said. "If you have stray animals on your property, call animal control. People should always avoid contact with unfamiliar dogs, cats and wild animals."


Feral cats, unlike stray domesticated cats, should be treated as wild animals; people should leave them alone and not try to capture or feed them, the Public Health Office said. People also should not leave uneaten pet food outside, attracting feral cats or other wild animals. [It is human nature to feed hungry animals and to attempt to tame them. In some cases, it works, and in others, such as this one, the outcome is less than favorable. - Mod.TG]
[Byline: David Ibata]
野良猫(捨て猫)とは異なり、野生化した猫は野生動物として扱われるべきである;つまり、人々は彼らを放っておくべきであり、捕まえたり、給餌したりすべきでない、と当局は述べている。また、野生猫や他の野生動物を惹きつけるために、食べ残しのペットフードを屋外に放置すべきではない。[空腹の動物に餌を与え、飼いならすことは人間の本性である。 これが機能する場合もあれば、今回の事件のように、結果が好ましくない場合もある。 -Mod.TG]

Communicated by: ProMED-mail <promed@promedmail.org>

[3] Massachusetts - fox, human exposure

マサチューセッツ州 – キツネ、ヒト暴露
Date: 24 Jun 2020
Source: NBC Boston [edited]

A fox is being tested for rabies after 2 people were attacked in Hudson, Massachusetts. Police say the 2 fox attacks happened an hour and a half apart Tuesday [23 Jun 2020] evening near Lake Boon.
マサチューセッツ州ハドソンで2人を襲ったキツネの狂犬病の検査を実施している。警察によると、キツネ2匹により1時間半間隔で襲われた事件は、火曜日[2020年6月23日] の夕方、ブーン湖の近くで起きた。

Nearby, a fox was found Wednesday [24 Jun 2020] morning after being hit by a car. This fox [the one found hit by a car - Mod.TG] is being tested, but officials have not determined whether it's the same animal.
近くで、キツネは水曜日[2020年6月24日] の朝、車にはねられた後に発見された。 このキツネ[車にはねられたことで発見されたもの-Mod.TG]は検査中だが、当局ではそれが同じ動物かどうかは判明していない。

One of the women who were attacked says the fox went after her and her dog, latching onto her ankle as she was cleaning out the car. She called the incident "traumatizing."

襲われた女性の1人の話によると、彼女が車の掃除をしている時にそのキツネは彼女と彼女の犬を追ってきて、彼女を車の外へ出そうと足首をつかんだと言った。 彼女はその事件を「トラウマになる」と言った。

"My wife and I were sitting on the back deck last night, and we heard some screaming for help," said DS, who lives in the area. "About an hour later, my neighbor across the street was attacked, bitten by a fox."
「妻と私は昨夜、バックデッキに座っていた。その時、助けを求める何かの叫び声を聞いた」と、この地域に住むDSは言った。 「約1時間後、通りを挟んだ私の隣人がキツネに襲われ、咬まれた。」

The woman who spoke to NBC10 Boston after being attacked says she is getting rabies shots. Her dog is OK but needed antibiotics and painkillers. [And the dog will need to have a booster rabies vaccine. - Mod.TG]
[Byline: Perry Russom]

襲われた後にNBC10ボストンの取材を受けた女性は、狂犬病ワクチン接種を受けていると話した。彼女の犬に問題はなかったが、抗生物質と鎮痛剤が必要だった。 [加えて、その犬は狂犬病ワクチンの追加接種が必要となるだろう。-Mod.TG]

Communicated by: ProMED-mail <promed@promedmail.org>

[4] Pennsylvania - fox, human exposure

ペンシルバニア州 – キツネ、ヒト暴露
Date: 26 Jun 2020
Source: The Daily Review [edited]

The Pennsylvania Department of Health reported Thursday [25 Jun 2020] a rabid fox had been found late last week on Mormon Lake Road in Ridgebury Township.

A spokesman with the department encouraged any persons who might have had exposure to this animal to call the Bradford County State Health Center. Residents who feel their pets may have been in contact with this animal should contact their veterinarian for advice.

Rabies is a virus of the central nervous system proving fatal in mammals if not treated, according to the Department of Health. Since 2000, between 350 and 500 animals in Pennsylvania are confirmed to have rabies each year. The disease is most commonly found in skunks, bats, raccoons, and cats, and can be transmitted through a bite or scratch. An infected person may experience headache, fever, pain or itching at the exposure site, irritability, and fatigue [and death - Mod.TG]. The department noted that the last reported human case was in 1984.

衛生当局によると、狂犬病は、治療しないと哺乳動物に致死的な影響を与える中枢神経系のウイルスである。2000年以降、ペンシルベニア州では350〜500頭の動物が毎年狂犬病に感染していることが確認されている。 この病気はスカンク、コウモリ、アライグマ、猫に最もよく見られ、咬傷や引っかき傷から感染する可能性がある。感染した人は、頭痛、発熱、曝露部位の痛み又は痒み、過敏性、疲労 [および死亡-Mod.TG] を経験する可能性がある。最後に報告されたヒトの症例は1984年であると当局は伝えている。
Communicated by: ProMED-mail from HealthMap Alerts <promed@promedmail.org>

[5] New York - fox, human exposure

ニューヨーク州 – キツネ、ヒト暴露
Date: 25 Jun 2020
Source: Rome Sentinel [edited]

A fox in Lee has tested positive for rabies, and an adult exposed to the animal has received post-exposure preventive treatment, the Oneida County Health Department announced. The fox was sent Monday [22 Jun 2020] to the state Wadsworth Center for testing, and results received Wednesday [24 Jun 2020], according to the county.

Leeに生息するキツネは狂犬病の検査で陽性を示し、その動物に暴露された大人は暴露後の予防的治療を受けた、とOneida郡保健当局が発表しました。 郡によれば、そのキツネは月曜日[2020年6月22日]に検査のために州のワズワースセンターに送られ、結果は水曜日[2020年6月24日]に判明した。

Signs of rabies include an animal acting strangely, mad or shy; the animal may get unusually close. Other signs include drooling or foaming from the mouth. [There are 2 types of rabies, a dumb form and a furious form. The furious form is most commonly seen in animals attacking, biting, seemingly unusually vicious and often drooling at the mouth. In the dumb or curious form, the animal appears calm, almost as if it were domesticated, perhaps shy, friendly or timid. It may or not drool. - Mod.TG].

狂犬病の兆候には、動物が奇妙な、狂気的な又は内気な行動をすることが含まれる。動物は異常に接近してくるかもしれない。 他の兆候としては、口からの流涎や泡沫状のよだれがある。 【狂犬病には、2種類の型、麻痺型(dumb)と狂騒型(furious)とがあります。狂騒型の動物は、一般的に動物を攻撃したり、噛んだり、異常に悪質で、しばしば流涎を認める。 麻痺型又は好奇型(curious form)で、動物はまるで家畜化されているかのように大人しく、もしくは内気や、友好的又は臆病なように振る舞う。流涎は見られる場合もあれば、見られない場合もある。 -Mod.TG]。

The Health Department says that if you see a wild or stray animal with these signs, do not approach it, and stay away. If any animal is acting strangely, call your local animal control officer for help.
Health Department officials offer the following vaccination recommendations:
**All cats, dogs, and ferrets 3 months or older must have a current rabies vaccination, even if they stay indoors.
**Dogs and cats must receive a rabies vaccination at 3 months old, one year, and then once every 3 years.
**Ferrets must receive a rabies vaccination every year.
For more information on rabies prevention, visit the Oneida County Health Department website at<http://www.ocgov.net//oneida/envhealth/MosquitoesTicksRabies>.

保健当局は、これらの兆候が見られる野生動物や野良動物を見かけた場合は、近づかず、距離を保つようにと伝えている。 奇妙な振る舞いをするいかなる動物でも、地元の動物管理官に助言を求めてください。


** 3か月以上のすべての猫、犬、フェレットは、室内にいても、狂犬病の予防接種を受けている必要がある。




Communicated by: ProMED-mail <promed@promedmail.org>
[If your pet is up to date on rabies vaccination and is exposed to a rabid animal, the requirements include revaccination and usually an observation period. Check with the county you reside in for specific requirements.

If you are the one exposed, wash the wound with soap and water immediately, and seek medical attention. Your need for post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is determined by the test results on the animal having bitten you in most circumstances. For example, the woman attacked in Massachusetts by a fox would need PEP vs. someone breaking up a fight between their own 2 vaccinated scuffling dogs.

Vaccinating your pets against rabies is critical to help protect your life and the life of your pet(s). Pets come in all shapes and sizes, include show calves, sheep and goats, horses, cats and dogs. If you interact with animals, please get your veterinarian's help and have them vaccinated.

The latest guidelines for rabies prevention include 2 significant changes in the recommended management of dogs and cats exposed to rabies. Dogs and cats who are overdue for a rabies vaccine booster may be able to receive a booster and 45 days of observation at home rather than undergoing quarantine or euthanasia. The recommended quarantine period for unvaccinated dogs and cats has been shortened from 6 months to 4 months.

The updated recommendations are included in the 2016 Compendium of Animal Rabies Prevention and Control<https://avmajournals.avma.org/doi/full/10.2460/javma.248.5.505>,
developed by the National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians. The compendium can be used by local jurisdictions todevelop rabies control programs. However, the guidelines do not replace or override existing local regulations.
更新された勧告は、National Association of State Public Health Veterinariansにより刊行された2016年版狂犬病予防と管理全書に収録されている。<https://avmajournals.avma.org/doi/full/10.2460/javma.248.5.505>


Changes in the 2016 compendium, compared with the 2011 version, include the following:
- Language clarification
- Recommendation for an interdisciplinary approach to rabies control
- Recommendation for additional data collection on a national level to improve surveillance
- New management guidelines for dogs and cats that are exposed to rabies and are unvaccinated or overdue for booster vaccination
- Reduction in the recommended quarantine period for some species
- Update of the list of animal rabies vaccines currently on the market
The new recommendations for dogs and cats are based on a 2015 study of rabies antibody responses and on unpublished data. Dr. Catherine Brown, co-chair of the compendium committee, said in the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association that the committee "wanted to make sure that [they] were using the best science available in order to help protect public health but also reduce the need for unnecessary euthanasia or quarantine of animals."








A partial list of the recommendations concerning dogs and cats is as follows (please see the compendium for the full guidelines, including those dealing with other species):

Pre-exposure vaccination: 
- After the initial rabies vaccination, an animal is considered immunized after 28 days (when the rabies antibody titer is expected to peak).
- The 1st booster vaccine is due one year later.
- Animals are considered currently vaccinated immediately after the booster vaccine is given. This includes animals that were overdue for the booster vaccine.
Management of dogs and cats exposed to rabies: 
- Dogs and cats should receive a booster vaccine, medical care including wound treatment, and 45 days of monitoring under the owner's control.
- Dogs and cats with no rabies vaccine history should be euthanized or kept in strict quarantine for 4 months with no direct contact with people or other animals. If animals are quarantined rather than euthanized, they should receive a rabies vaccine within 96 hours of exposure, at the beginning of the quarantine. - Dogs and cats that are overdue for a rabies booster and havedocumentation of a prior rabies vaccine should receive a booster vaccine, medical care including wound treatment, and 45 days ofmonitoring under the owner's control.
- Dogs and cats that are overdue for a rabies booster but have no documentation of a prior rabies vaccine can be treated as unvaccinated (booster vaccine and 4-month quarantine) or, with the guidance of the local public health authority, might be able to undergo serologic testing to provide evidence of prior vaccination. If this testing indicates an adequate response to vaccination, the animal can be treated as overdue for a booster (receiving a booster vaccine and 45 days of monitoring).
Human exposure: 
- Dogs and cats that bite humans should be kept in confinement and observed daily for 10 days regardless of their rabies vaccination status.
- These animals should not receive a rabies vaccine during the observation period.
- Any signs of illness during the confinement period should be reported to the local health department, and the animal should beevaluated by a veterinarian.
- If the signs of illness suggest rabies, the animal should be euthanized and tested for rabies (head or entire brain submitted).
- Stray or unwanted dogs and cats that expose a human should be euthanized immediately and tested for rabies.


















- Extracted from: <https://www.americanveterinarian.com/news/new-rabies-recommendations-for-dogs-and-cats>.
- Mod.TG

HealthMap/ProMED map: United States: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/106>]

[See Also:
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human exp ...to be archived
Rabies (17): Americas (USA) fox, goat, bat, human exposure
Rabies (15): Americas (USA) fox, raccoon, dog, human exp
Rabies (13): Americas (USA) cat, fox, human exp
Rabies (12): Americas (USA) fox, dog, cat, human exp
Rabies (11): Americas (USA) cat, skunk, bat, human exp
Rabies (10): Americas (USA) raccoon, dog, bull, human exp
Rabies (08): Americas (USA, Canada) cat, dog, fox, skunk, human exp
Rabies (06): Americas (USA) cat, fox, cow, human exp
Rabies (03): Americas (USA) cat, fox, otter, coyote, human exposure
Rabies (02): Americas (USA) raccoon, cat, human, dog exp
Rabies (57): Americas (USA) raccoon, cat, human exp
Rabies (53): Americas (USA) fox, human exp
Rabies (50): Americas (USA) cat, dog, human exposure
Rabies (49): Americas (USA) fox, human exp
Rabies (48): Americas (USA) cat, dog, raccoon, human exp
Rabies (47): Americas (USA) skunk, alert
Rabies (45): Americas (USA) dog, skunk, raccoon, fox, human exp
Rabies (44): Americas (USA) bat, human exp
Rabies (43): Americas (USA) fox, bat, human exp
Rabies (42): Americas (USA) dog, cat, fox, raccoon, human exp
Rabies (40): Americas (USA) bat, human exp
Rabies (39): Americas (Canada, USA) bat, fox, kitten, raccoon, human
Rabies (38): Americas (Canada, USA) bat, fox, human
Rabies (37): Americas (USA) cat, fox, raccoon, human exp
Rabies (34): Americas (USA) cat, dog, skunk, bat, human exp
Rabies (30): Americas, USA (FL, NC) cat, fox, dog, human exposure
Rabies (28): Americas, USA, cattle, imported dogs, corr.
Rabies (28): Americas (USA) cattle, imported dogs
Rabies (26): Americas (USA) fox, raccoon, dog, human exposure
Rabies (13): Americas, USA (CO, PA) dog, cow, human exposure
Rabies (12): Americas, USA (SC, CT) raccoon, dog, human exp.
Rabies (11): Americas, USA (FL) raccoon, alert
Rabies (10): Americas, USA (SC) goat, human exposure
Rabies (09): Americas, USA (NY) raccoon, alert